This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study carried out to improve the understanding of deep bottom-up water injection, which enabled optimizing the recovery of a heavy oil field in South Oman. Understanding the variable water injection response and the scale of impact on oil recovery due to reservoir heterogeneity, operating reservoir pressure and liquid offtake management are the main challenges of deep bottoms-up water injection in heavy oil fields. The offtake and throughput management philosophy for heavy oil waterflood is not same as classical light oil. Due to unclear understanding of water injection response, sometimes the operators are tempted to implement alternative water injection trials leading to increase in the risk of losing reserves and unwarranted CAPEX sink. There are several examples of waterflood in heavy oil fields; however, very few examples of deep bottom water injection cases are available globally.

The field G is one of the large heavy oil fields in South Oman; the oil viscosity varies between 250cp to 1500cp. The field came on-stream in 1989, but bottoms-up water-injection started in 2015, mainly to supplement the aquifer influx after 40% decline of reservoir pressure. After three years of water injection, the field liquid production was substantially lower than predicted, which implied risk on the incremental reserves. Alternative water injection concepts were tested by implementing multiple water injection trials apprehending the effectiveness of the bottoms-up water injection concept. A comprehensive integrated study including update of geocellular model, full field dynamic simulation, produced water re-injection (PWRI) model and conventional field performance analysis was undertaken for optimizing the field recovery.

The Root Cause Analysis (RCA) revealed many reasons for suboptimal field performance including water injection management, productivity impairment due to near wellbore damage, well completion issues, and more importantly the variable water injection response in the field. The dynamic simulation study indicated negligible oil bank development due to frontal displacement and no water cut reversal as initial response to the water injection. Nevertheless, the significance of operating reservoir pressure, liquid offtake and throughput management impact on oil recovery cann't be precluded.

The work concludes that the well reservoir management (WRM) strategy for heavy oil field is not same as the classical light oil waterflood. Nevertheless, the reservoir heterogeneity, oil column thickness and saturation history are also important influencing factors for variable water injection response in heavy oil field.

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