We investigate quantitatively the effect of inclined and intersecting discontinuous shales on horizontal waterfloods, using generic, dimensionless 2- and 3-D models. We find that dis-continuous shales have a significant effect on reservoir performance only if they are >95% continuous, and are steeply dipping or intersecting, or if the displacement is unfavourable. 2-D simulations can significantly overestimate the effect of discontinuous shales, because they assume that the shales are entirely continuous in the third dimension.

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