History matching is critical in subsurface flow modeling. It is to align the reservoir model with the measured data. However, it remains challenging since the solution is not unique and the implementation is expensive. The traditional approach relies on trial and error, which are exhaustive and labor-intensive. In this study, we propose a new workflow utilizing Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to automatically and accurately perform history matching. We deliver four novelties within the workflow: 1) the use of multi-resolution low-fidelity models to guarantee high-quality matching, 2) updating the ranges of priors to assure convergence, 3) the use of Long-Short Term Memory (LSTM) network as a low-fidelity model to produce continuous time-response, and 4) the use of Bayesian optimization to obtain the optimum low-fidelity model for Bayesian MCMC runs.

We utilize the first SPE comparative model as the physical and high-fidelity model. It is a gas injection into an oil reservoir case, which is the gravity-dominated process. The coarse low-fidelity model manages to provide updated priors that increase the precision of Bayesian MCMC. The Bayesian-optimized LSTM has successfully captured the physics in the high-fidelity model. The Bayesian-LSTM MCMC produces an accurate prediction with narrow uncertainties. The posterior prediction through the high-fidelity model ensures the robustness and precision of the workflow. This approach provides an efficient and high-quality history matching for subsurface flow modeling.

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