One of the unresolved issues preventing the practical application of a flow based global upscaling of permeability is the problem of isolated flow bodies. Isolated flow bodies make a global flow difficult to define in these regions. New and innovative techniques to calculate flow in these regions and how to imbed these solutions into a global upscaling framework are discussed. Specifically, answers to questions of how to apply boundary conditions to isolated bodies and how to handle the barriers are presented. Resolving the issue of isolated flow bodies is a necessary and significant step to enabling global upscaling on a more widespread basis.

The proposed techniques have been applied to several models, demonstrating the capability to use these methods in a global upscaling framework. Together these methods allow the application of global upscaling to a greater variety of geologic model types, enabling the application of global upscaling in situations not previously possible.

Examples of the application of the method show that global upscaling is feasible and provides advantages over industry standard local upscaling methods. Different global upscaling techniques show different behavior on certain model types. The advantages and disadvantages for each technique when applied to different types of models are discussed.

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