Streamline-based methods for history matching are appealing for two reasons. First, the forward simulation is potentially much faster than conventional simulation methods for displacement-type problems. Second, time-of-flight information along the streamlines can be used to find sensitivity coefficients in an efficient and elegant manner. However, current streamline history matching methods use forward simulations that ignore the effects of gravity and compressible flow. These effects may be critical in analyzing early-time performance data. If relevant physical effects are neglected in the forward simulation, the history matched reservoir description may not be consistent with the actual field, and predictions from the model will not be reliable.

We present a method for history matching watercut data using a streamline simulation that captures all the pertinent physics, including compressible three-phase flow with gravity. We use a methodology based on the assumption of one-dimensional flow along streamlines to find the sensitivity of water flow rate at production wells to changes in permeability. Although the computation of the sensitivities is approximate, the method provides a good history match for problems with significant effects due to compressibility and gravity.

Data from a North Sea field is used to test the technique. Using a full-physics streamline model gives a reasonable history match and a good prediction of future performance.

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