Skip Nav Destination
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter
Filter

Update search

Filter

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

- Title
- Author
- Author Affiliations
- Full Text
- Abstract
- Keyword
- DOI
- ISBN
- EISBN
- ISSN
- EISSN
- Issue
- Volume
- References
- Paper Number

### NARROW

Peer Reviewed

Format

Subjects

Journal

Date

Availability

1-3 of 3

H.D. Outmans

Close
**Follow your search**

Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?

*Close Modal*

Sort by

Journal Articles

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal*3 (03): 236–244.

Paper Number: SPE-491-PA

Published: 01 September 1963

Abstract

The mechanics of filtration are described by a theoretical-empirical nonlinear diffusion equation which, under certain circumstances, may be linearized and then solved explicitly.For filtration under static conditions linearization leads to a boundary value problem analogous to a heat flow problem with a known explicit solution. The corresponding solution for static filtration is compared with published experimental data.Under dynamic conditions filtration takes place in three successive stages. During each of these the rate of filtration and/or the thickness of the filter cake are different functions of the filtration time. The proposed mechanism explains the observed high resistance of dynamically deposited filter cakes against erosion and also the connection between filtration rate and viscosity of the drilling fluidSeveral of the quantities governing dynamic filtration have no counterpart in the static filtration mechanism. The static filtration rate is, therefore, not a reliable measure for the dynamic rate and vice versa. Introduction Filtration under simulated borehole conditions, i.e., either from a static suspension or from a suspension flowing parallel to the filter cake (dynamic filtration), has been the subject of several laboratory studies. This experimental and theoretical work showed that many aspects of the filtration mechanism cannot be explained by an elementary filtration theory based on the assumption that the filter cake is incompressible. For a more satisfactory theory compressibility should be taken into account. This has been done, at least to some extent, in the filtration theory developed for the chemical industry. Surveying the literature (see Ref. 8 for a bibliography) it becomes apparent that, although several properties of filter cakes deposited from many different suspensions have been measured, including compressibility, the filtration equations are essentially empirical in nature. No attempt has been made, for instance, to develop filtration theory along the lines of consolidation theory. This theory, upon which a highly successful development in soil mechanics rests, would appear to be an excellent starting point for a filtration theory since the compressibility concept is an essential part of it. As we will use this theory in the following development it is well to state the four assumptions on which it is based: The fluid flow through a compressible porous medium is governed by Darcy's law. The rate of change in fluid content of an element of the porous medium is proportional to the rate of change of solid pressure between the particles. The solid particles are incompressible within the range of pressures considered. The total pressure on a surface normal to the line of flow is equal to the sum of the fluid pressure and the pressure between the particles (solid pressure) at that surface. To calculate the rate of filtration and other quantities of interest it is necessary to know the filter cake compressibility and the permeability as a function of the solid pressure. It has not been possible to calculate these functions from theoretical considerations and they will therefore be introduced in this paper as empirical expressions. Both are determined in a compression cell where the cake is subjected to a mechanical load. Permeability and compressibility are measured after the solid pressure has stabilized, i.e., after the excess fluid pressure has been dissipated and the uniform pressure is transmitted entirely by the solids.The permeability and compressibility thus determined are not the same as during filtration in the borehole, under either static or dynamic conditions, because then, due to frictional drag, the solid pressure and hence also the permeability and compressibility vary along a line normal to the direction of the mean flow and can only be defined locally. DERIVATION OF THE FILTRATION EQUATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE FILTER CAKES As the filter cake in the borehole is thin compared to the radius of the hole the filtration may be considered as linear. Taking the x-axis normal to the wall, with its origin at the formation, we have, according to Darcy's law, ...........................(1) SPEJ P. 236^

Journal Articles

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal*2 (02): 165–176.

Paper Number: SPE-183-PA

Published: 01 June 1962

Abstract

Present first-order theory for frontal stability and viscous fingering of immiscible liquids is improved by including the nonlinear terms in the equations describing conditions at the interface of the liquids. This leads to the revision of several conclusions which were based on first-order theory. They concern the growth rate and changing shape of a sinusoidal disturbance, particularly in relation to the wave number of this disturbance. Nonlinear aspects of effective inter facial tension are discussed and it is shown that this tension is not simply a positive proportionality constant in a linear relation between pressure difference and curvature at the interface. Scaling requirements are determined from the dimensionless groups which govern fingering. Gravity and interfacial tension invalidate a previously formulated conclusion that the shape of a finger after a given displacement is independent of the displacement velocity. Also, similarity of fingering (and, hence, of sweep efficiency in case of an unstable front) requires geometrical similarity of the initial disturbance in the model and the reservoir with a scale factor which is the same as the one for scaling down the dimensions of the reservoir. Introduction The critical velocity at which the transition zone in the vertical displacement of immiscible liquids becomes unstable was calculated by Hill. More recently, the same was done for nonvertical displacements and it was also shown that the stability is affected by an effective interfacial tension between the liquids. Although in the oil reservoir a stable front is always desirable from a recovery point of view, the necessary velocity may have to be so low that the corresponding production rate is not economical. In that case, a knowledge of the fingering unstable front is necessary for predicting recovery at breakthrough. Studies in this direction have not gone beyond the very moment at which fingering first occurs. Conclusions about stability and fingering in these references are all based on linear theory. In this theory the nonlinear terms in the equations describing conditions at the front are neglected. The usual justification for this lack of mathematical rigor is that the nonlinear terms can be made small relative to the linear terms and, supposedly, small causes produce only small effects. It has been recognized, however, that this is not necessarily true in the nonlinear problems of hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamic stability and fingering of the front between two liquids, accelerated in a direction normal to the front, for instance, is strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the boundary conditions. Since these boundary conditions are not unlike those arising in the problem of stability and fingering of the front during a slow immiscible displacement in porous media, it was thought that there, too, the nonlinear terms should be taken into consideration. A summary of the results obtained in linear theory and a comparison with experimental data precede the nonlinear theory developed in this paper. This summary serves to introduce some quantities which will be used in the further development. It should also be pointed out that the method of higher-order approximation by which the nonlinear stability problem is solved has application in other reservoir studies. SUMMARY OF LINEAR THEORY A plane interface remains stable if its velocity is smaller than a critical velocity. ............................(1) This equation is derived for uniform flow in a thin layer inclined to the horizontal plane. The displacement takes place in a direction normal to the intersection of this layer and the horizontal plane. The undisturbed (line) interface is normal to the velocity. Fluid 1, the upper fluid (gas), is displacing Fluid 2 (oil). SPEJ P. 165^

Journal Articles

Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE)

*Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal*2 (02): 156–164.

Paper Number: SPE-210-PA

Published: 01 June 1962

Abstract

In steady vertical flow, the interface of an immiscible liquid-liquid displacement is horizontal for any flow rate below the critical in non-vertical flow, however, the shape of the interface in the steady state does depend on the flow rate, and the purpose of this paper is to calculate the unsteady interfaces during the transition of one steady state of flow to another. A knowledge of these transient interfaces is of considerable importance in reservoir engineering where the calculation of breakthrough recovery depends on the instant the interface reaches the producing wells and on the shape of the interface at that time. Although the emphasis is put on transient interfaces, which eventually approach stable equilibrium, it is shown that if the displacement exceeds a critical rate no equilibrium is possible. The interface is then unstable and viscous fingers are formed during the displacement. The critical rate and the shape of the transient and equilibrium interfaces are affected by the effective interfacial tension; but since this effective inter facial tension appears in the calculations only in combination with the in verse square of the thickness of the medium, its effect in the reservoir would appear to be negligible compared to its significance in model experiments. Introduction Stability criteria and the early growth of interfacial disturbances in a plane parallel to the boundaries of a dipping formation in which oil is displaced by an incompressible fluid were described in a previous paper. This type of instability is significant in thin reservoirs. However, if the reservoir has appreciable thickness, then interfacial stability in vertical planes, normal to the upper and lower boundaries, also becomes important (the displacement is supposed to be parallel to these vertical planes). The difference between the two stability problems is that, in the first case, the intersections of the interface with planes parallel to the boundaries are normal to the direction of the displacement; in the second case, the intersections, this time with vertical planes, are not normal to the displacement. Instead, they are tilted at an angle which depends on the displacement rate. The tilt of steady interfaces was calculated by Dietz who also determined the critical rate of displacement for stability in the vertical plane by assuming that this rate would coincide with an interfacial tilt equal to the dip of the formation. The critical rate thus calculated is the same as has been found for thin reservoirs (see Eq. 1.1 of Ref. 1 and of the present paper). Dietz's calculation of the stable tilt was verified by laboratory experiments and the agreement was found to be fairly good. It is doubtful, however, that stable tilts actually exist in the reservoir because a change in production rate is not followed by an instantaneous adjustment of the interface to the new rate but, rather, by a transition period during which the interface changes from one equilibrium tilt to the other. The principal objective of this paper has been to describe these transient interfaces without putting any restrictions on the flow conditions or the shape of the interface, as had been done previously. The second objective was to compute the critical velocity, taking into account capillary effects, and the third was to evaluate, at least qualitatively, the shape of the front at rates above the critical, again without making the simplifying assumptions introduced by previous investigators. In the following sections two examples are given of the calculation of interfacial motion. The first describes this motion for an initially horizontal interface in a dipping layer, and the second for a vertical interface in a horizontal layer. The mathematical formulation of the problem is non linear in the boundary conditions, and this prohibits its solution in closed form. Instead, the solution is obtained in the form of higher-order approximations. SPEJ P. 156^