MEMBERS SPE-AIME

Abstract

Equipment was constructed to perform dynamic displacement experiments on small core samples under conditions of elevated temperature. Oil-water flowing fraction and pressure drop were recorded continuously for calculation of both the relative permeability ratio and the individual relative permeability ratio and the individual relative permeabilities. Imbibition relative permeabilities permeabilities. Imbibition relative permeabilities were measured for five samples of Boise sandstone at room temperature and at 175deg.F. The fluids used were distilled water and a white mineral oil. The effect of temperature on absolute permeability was investigated for six Boise sandstone samples and two Berea sandstone samples. Results for all samples were similar. The irreducible water saturation increased significantly, while the residual oil saturation decreased significantly with temperature increase. The individual relative permeability to oil increased for all water saturations below the room-temperature residual oil saturation, but the relative permeability to water at flood-out increased with permeability to water at flood-out increased with temperature increase. Absolute permeability decreased with temperature increase.

Introduction

Test environment is generally acknowledged to have a significant effect on measurement of relative permeability. The environment consists not only permeability. The environment consists not only of the temperature and pressure, but also of the fluids used and the core condition. Several workers have used the approach of completely simulating the reservoir conditions in the laboratory experiment. Such methods are termed "restored state." Restored state data are generally different from "room condition" data; since several variables are involved, it is difficult to determine the importance of each variable. Another approach used attributes the changes in relative permeability to changes in the rock-fluid interaction or wettability. Wettability, however, depends on many variables. Specifically, wettability depends on the composition of the rock surface, the composition of the fluids, the saturation history of the rock surface, and the temperature and pressure of the system. The purpose of this study is to isolate temperature as a variable in the relative permeability of a given rock-fluid system. Work on isolation of temperature as a variable in relative permeability has been conducted since the early 1960s. Edmondsons established results in 1965 for a Berea sandstone core using both water/refined oil and water/crude oil as fluid pairs. He showed a change in the relative permeability ratio accompanied by a decrease in the residual oil saturation with temperature increase. Edmondson showed no data for water saturations below 40 percent, and his curves show considerable scatter in the middle saturation ranges. Edmondson's work was the only study to use consolidated cores to investigate the effect of temperature on relative permeability measurements. Poston et al. presented waterflood data for sand packs containing 80-, 99-, a nd 600-cp oil, and packs containing 80-, 99-, a nd 600-cp oil, and observed an increase in the individual relative permeabilities with temperature increase. The permeabilities with temperature increase. The increase in the oil and the water permeability was accompanied by an increase in irreducible water saturation and a decrease in the residual oil saturation with temperature increase. Poston et al. was the only work to present individual oil and water permeability. Davidsons presented results for displacement of No. 15 white oil from a sand pack by distilled water, steam, or nitrogen. However, he found little permeability-ratio dependence in the middle permeability-ratio dependence in the middle saturation ranges. Davidson, too, found a decrease in the residual oil saturation with temperature increase, but he did not include data on irreducible water saturation.

SPEJ

P. 376

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