Passive microseismic imaging of fracture growth during hydraulic fracturing provides detailed images of the fracture geometry, including fracture dimension, orientation and complexity. The technology can be applied in real-time, during the stimulation, to provide time-lapse, 4D seismic images of the fracture growth. Here we present a number of case studies that illustrate how these images can then be used to improve the implementation of intended stimulation designs. The case studies demonstrate the feasibility of assessing the effectiveness of flushing an unexpected screen-out, imaging proppant placement, and controlling fracture geometry.

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