Nanoparticle dispersions (NPDs) are an emerging new technology in the oil and gas industry which can be applied to EOR, well remediation, and formation damage removal to stimulate hydrocarbon production using the unique properties that colloidal particles possess. Nanoparticles have a high surface area to volume ratio allowing a greater efficiency for chemical interactions to occur. However, nanoparticle dispersions are often difficult to stabilize in harsh downhole environments. The dispersion can quickly become unstable and agglomerate when the fluid is subjected to changes in pH, or encounters increased salinity and/or temperature. Agglomeration renders the fluid ineffective, and at worst can cause severe damage to the formation. The development of highly concentrated nanoparticle dispersions stable in high TDS brine at high temperatures has been achieved and verified in the laboratory with imbibition tests and dynamic core flow experiments.
NPDs can be stabilized in the reservoir by altering charge density, hydrodynamic diameter, and the zeta potential of the particles. This is accomplished by surface modification, as well as with the addition of stabilizing chemistry.
This paper presents solutions to the destabilizing elements encountered in the reservoir, that until now have inhibited the downhole utilization of nanoparticle dispersions. Stability research of NPD fluids in brines empirically illustrates that by chemically modifying the particle surface and the surrounding aqueous environment, the fluids will remain properly dispersed and active in destabilizing bottomhole conditions. This will further pave the way for industry research into new applications of nanoparticle based fluid systems.