PUBLICATION RIGHTS RESERVED PUBLICATION RIGHTS RESERVED THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL MEETING JOINTLY HOSTED BY THE PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM AND THE SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS IN CALGARY, JUNE 10 TO 13, 1990. DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER IS INVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR PUBLICATION IN CIM AND SPE JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN PRIOR TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING.
The use of salts, such as potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl), as temporary clay stabilizers during oil well drilling, completions and servicing has been in practice for many years. Their effectiveness in this practice practice for many years. Their effectiveness in this practice has been well established throughout the industry. However, because of the bulk and potential environmental hazards associated with the salts, many operators have begun to search out alternatives to their use.
Recent research has developed a relationship between physical properties of various cations (K+, Na+, etc.) and physical properties of various cations (K+, Na+, etc.) and their efficiency as temporary clay stabilizers. These physical properties were then utilized to synthesize an physical properties were then utilized to synthesize an organic cation with a higher efficiency as a clay stabilizer than the typical salts now used in the oil industry. This allows much lower salt concentrations to be used to obtain the same clay stabilizing effectiveness. The liquid Product has proven to be much easier to handle and transport it has been shown to be environmentally compatible and is biodegradable in its diluted form. its effectiveness in fracturing operations has been extensively proven in numerous treatments in various formations throughout the U.S. and Canada.
Most oil and gas producing formations contain clay minerals that were either originally deposited during sedimentation (detrital clay), or formed later by the action of heat, Pressure and time on minerals already present or precipitated from fluids flowing through the matrix precipitated from fluids flowing through the matrix (authigenic clay). The importance of these minerals in the production of oil and gas and the potential permeability production of oil and gas and the potential permeability damage they can cause have been widely investigated' The two major mechanisms by which these minerals can cause permeability damage are swelling and by migration. In swelling, clay imbibes water into its crystalline structure and subsequently increases in volume. plugging the pore in which it resides. In migration, clay minerals can be dispersed by contact with a foreign fluid, or can be entrained by produced fluids and transported until a restriction is encountered (usually a pore throat) where the entrained particles bridge, forming a restriction in the capillary. The mechanisms of migration of clays and other fine minerals have also been extensively explored.
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