PUBLICATIONS RIGHTS RESERVED PUBLICATIONS RIGHTS RESERVED THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL MEETING JOINTLY HOSTED BY THE PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM AND THE SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS IN CALGARY, JUNE 10 TO 13, 1990. DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER IS INVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE MEETING AND WILL BE PAPER IS INVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR PUBLICATION IN CIM AND SPE JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING.
Amoco Production Company installed two of its first onshore cogeneration units during late 1983 and mid-1984 in west-central Wyoming, USA. These 2.4 megawatt cogeneration units were placed in an oil field that uses steam and hot water injection in the recovery of a viscous crude oil and in the operation of a natural gas sweetening plant that uses steam for its heat-medium requirements. This paper examines the operating performance of both units over the past six years, improvements made in these systems to achieve high online operating factors and the economic justification for their installation.
Cogeneration is defined by the United States (USA) government as the dual production of electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel supply. One of the provisions from the 1978 Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) requires that the state utility regulatory agencies must allow cogenerators the right to interconnect with public utility companies for the purposes of providing back-up electrical power to the cogenerator. Because of this provision to PURPA, as well as other economic provision to PURPA, as well as other economic incentives, Amoco was able to justify the installation of two, small power, cogeneration units. The first began operation in December, 1983, in a mature, heavy oil reservoir stimulated by an active steam flood. The second unit became operational in June, 1984, in a natural gas sweetening plant using steam for the regeneration of amine in its hydrogen sulfide extraction process.
Both of Amoco's cogeneration units use a nominal 2.4 megawatt, industrial grade, natural gas-fired, turbine to convert thermal energy to electricity. A cut-away of the turbine is shown in Figure 1. Ambient air enters through a inlet air filtration system and passes into the air compression section of the turbine. Here, the air is compressed from atmospheric pressure to 105 psig (884 KPa) through 11 axial flow, compression stages. As the air leaves the compression section, it is channeled either into the fuel combustor or around the combustor for internal engine cooling. Natural gas enters the turbine through one of ten fuel gas injectors. One of the fuel injectors also contains a spark ignitor to start ignition of the fuel at 15 percent of full engine speed. After ignition, combustion is then self-sustaining through all the fuel injectors.
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