In recent years, interest in water-based EOR methods and the combination of modified seawater with chemicals has grown due to their economic improvement of oil production. The hybrid application of low salinity water with surfactants (LSS) flooding has a promising potential to significantly increase the oil recovery. LSS flooding, a novel hybrid EOR approach, has recently proven its capability of altering rock surface wettability and reducing oil-water IFT. In this study, we present a comprehensive assessment of the fundamentals and recent developments of LSS flooding, as well as lessons learned from previous studies and the key uncertainties associated with successful implementation. The study begins with an overview of surfactant flooding, low salinity water (LSW) flooding and the hybrid application of LSW flooding processes. The LSS flooding process in different reservoir types and the recovery mechanisms associated is then discussed. The recent laboratory studies for LSS flooding and the surfactant losses associated in porous media are also reviewed. Recent studies of LSS flooding have concluded the advantages of higher oil recovery, higher surfactant stability, lower surfactant retention, and lower chemical consumption compared to conventional surfactant flooding. Most of the LSS flooding application has been performed on sandstones with remarkable outcomes, meanwhile, it’s application in carbonates has garnered attention in recent years and some promising findings were reported. The efforts of this work can provide further understanding of the LSS flooding process and its underlying mechanisms, especially in carbonates which are not fully covered in the literature. Finally, this paper gives more insight into the potential success of LSS flooding over surfactant and LSW flooding processes.