Traditional rock typing combined with an inferred depositional linkage for variogram-based simulation is a standard approach in carbonates. In the Tengiz Unit 1 platform, reservoir properties of carbonates as defined by Petrophysical Rock Types (PRTs) are the product of primary depositional facies and diagenetic modification that have separate spatial trends and interactions. Careful, multidisciplinary and targeted analysis is required to unravel such trends from the usually complex hard data sets, but is critical as an understanding of the trends forms the basis for reservoir modeling of the Tengiz Unit 1 platform. Depositional cycles in the Unit 1 Tengiz platform (Late Visean to Bashkirian) are made up of a succession of generally shoaling lithofacies overlying a sharp base with evidence for subaerial exposure and/or flooding. Systematic study of the diagenetic products of several sequences across the platform using petrography, stable isotopes and CL revealed that the diagenetic modification includes early meteoric dissolution and subsequent cementation, late burial dissolution and late burial bitumen cementation. PRTs are designed to include spatial attributes of the combined stratigraphic, facies and diagenetic framework form the basis for the Multiple Point Statistics and Facies Distribution Modeling (MPS/FDM) simulation of the SIM08T Unit 1 static platform reservoir model. Of the six PRTs, one is linked to volcanic ash (PRT 1), one associated with bitumen (PRT 2) and four with increasing porosity (PRTs 3-6) where PRT 3 tight and PRTs 4-6 represent increasing reservoir quality with PRT 6 the highest quality. PRT maps and a vertical proportion curve were used to generate the facies probability cube and convolved with training images, specifying the spatial interrelationship, to generate a PRT realization. The revised sequence stratigraphic framework and integration of novel concepts in modeling the diagenetic overprint addressed the need for a refined understanding of the platform in preparation for the FGP miscible gas injection project. In addition, the extensive use of MPS/FDM modeling approaches in Unit 1 has resulted in a more realistic integration of both depositional and diagenetic trends in the Unit 1 platform.

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