Fossil fuel combustion supplies more than 85% of energy for industrial activities and thus it is the main source of greenhouse gases in the form of CO2. This is expected to remain unchanged for a long time as the world energy consumption doubles. Renewable energy is often a better option since it is environmental friendly but its technologies are not financially available for most countries. Carbon (iv)oxide capture and sequestration (CCS) is necessary for meaningful greenhouse gases reduction in the immediate future. CCS could reduce emissions by 19%. This is an important bridge between our lifestyle and an environmental friendly world. The components of CCS system include; capture (separation and compression), transport, injection and finally monitoring.

Power plants which are gas and coal fired are the main source of CO2. Other candidate sources include; cement production plants, refineries, petrochemical industries, oil and gas processing firms and natural gas wells

The methods of capturing CO2 are pre-combustion, post-combustion and oxy-combustion/oxy-fuel.

Possible sequestration places for the captured CO2 include; geological storage, for example depleted oil and gas reservoir, enhanced oil recovery, un-minable coal seams and deep saline formations, ocean storage, mineral carbonation and algal growth. Each of the methods above have their advantages and shortcomings as discussed in the research paper.

CO2 can be utilized in various ways like, conversion into renewable fuels, formic acid, syngas, methane and methanol, utilizing CO2 as a feedstock for organic and inorganic carbonates, urea and biodegradable polymers as well as non-conversion use of CO2 for example as a geothermal fluid, used in enhanced oil recovery and beverage making. The challenges of CCS are; high cost of capture transport and injection, environmental and safety, subsurface uncertainty, legal and regulatory issues. Trappings contribute to storage of CO2 in a site. They include; Structural and stratigraphic, residual, solubility, mineral trappings.

In conclusion, an approach that integrates different methods of capture and storage of CO2 may be a practical solution for CCS.

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