The successful integration of aviation capabilities aboard ships is a complex endeavor that must balance ship design with the flight envelope of the helicopter. This can be particularly important when considering air wakes and other flow around the superstructure as it impacts the flight deck. This flow can generate unsteady structures that may interfere with safe helicopter operations. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is commonly used to characterize the flow field and assess potential impacts to the flight envelope, which can be used to help define an operating envelope for helicopter operations.

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