We introduce a semi-empirical model that can determine a ship’s performance in level ice based on Lindqvist’s model and develop a simple model for calculating ice resistance. This model assumes that contact between the ship and the ice is a case of symmetrical collision, and two contact cases are considered. Crushing and submersion forces are calculated via Lindqvist’s formulas, and the breaking force is determined by a concept of energy consideration during ship and ice impact. The average difference between the predicted data and the model test data is about 4.6%, but the total resistance showed fairly close agreement with both. In addition, the friction coefficient may have considerable influence on breaking and submersion forces.

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