This paper presents numerical and mathematical models of ship-ice breaking. Two ship-ice breaking scenarios are considered, ice wedge breaking and level ice breaking. Numerical models of both breaking scenarios account for ice crushing, ice flexure and water foundation effect. For ice wedges, the effect of ship speed on the ice breaking process is investigated for different ship angles, ice wedge angles and ice thicknesses. The level ice breaking is investigated with and without radial cracks. The mathematical model is developed based on validated numerical results. Both models can be useful for safe speed evaluation, ice management and ship design.

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