This paper presents the predictions of ice loads on a moored hull, based on model experiments and numerical simulations. Three levels of mooring stiffness were considered, which varied from an almost infinitely stiff system (used for ship resistance) to a mooring stiffness typical of those used in offshore installations. Ice conditions presented are for managed pack ice and large ice floes. The results show the effect of varying stiffness in the mooring system on the mean and peak loads. The numerical simulations were carried out using a discrete element code for ice interaction forces combined with a prediction of mooring loads, based on the force for a given deflection. The results of the simulations show the same trends as the experiments.

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