Numerical simulations are carried out to represent the historical data of ice interaction with the Kulluk during the 1980s. Three dimensional simulations include dynamics of the ice cover and the response of the mooring system. The results give modes of ice accumulation, clearing and ice forces. Depth-averaged simulations consider larger zones of the ice cover to examine a range of conditions that were observed during the past operation of the Kulluk in the Beaufort Sea. The simulations evaluate the effects of managed ice cover characteristics such as floe sizes and confinement. Predicted forces are compared to the historical record of measurements.

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