Podded propulsion units, or azimuthing thrusters, have enabled the development of commercial ships with hull forms optimized for bow first operation in open water, or light ice conditions, combined with an icebreaking stern optimized for stern first operation in ice.

This paper describes the methods and approaches adopted by Lloyd’s Register for classification of two ships specified and designed for stern first operation in ice.

These methods and approaches include interpretation of classification and ice class rules, as well as the adoption of first principle methods to assess the ship structural arrangements and propulsion systems.

This content is only available via PDF.
You can access this article if you purchase or spend a download.