Visual observation is the best means of detecting hazardous ice, however operators currently have very little information at their disposal to help determine whether an ice feature is first-year, second-year or multi-year ice. This paper describes a four-year project that was undertaken to develop a guide to explain the factors that make multi-year ice hazardous to ships and structures, and to illustrate the key parameters that can be used to identify different types of sea ice. The guide is entitled Understanding and Identifying Old Ice in Summer. Its more than 200 pages of information are meant to supplement, and help interpret, observations from ships, offshore platforms, aerial reconnaissance and satellite imagery.
Guide for Understanding and Identifying Old Ice in Summer
Johnston, M. E., and G. W. Timco. "Guide for Understanding and Identifying Old Ice in Summer." Paper presented at the SNAME 8th International Conference and Exhibition on Performance of Ships and Structures in Ice, Banff, Alberta, Canada, July 2008. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/ICETECH-2008-149
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