In this paper, the versatility of discrete element analysis (DEM) in modeling ice-related problems is discussed and further demonstrated using the results from the DEM works conducted by the National Research Council’s Institute for Ocean Technology (NRC-IOT) using a commercial code DECICE. These works include a wide range of icestructure and ice-ship interaction problems of current interest, i.e., ice loads on conical structures, jamming of floes at bridge piers, modeling of the mechanical behavior of ice rubble, pack ice stability and associated forces on offshore structures, rubble loads exerted on an inclined retaining wall, ridge keel resistance during seabed scouring, dynamic response of a moored conical drill-ship in ice, and ship maneuvering performance in ice. Representative simulations for each case are presented including load, motion and/or interaction process, whichever is appropriate. The simulations from DECICE were compared with experimental data and found satisfactory in terms of accuracy and real-time simulation capability. The accuracy is important for design and engineering of marine structures and ships, whereas, the real-time simulation capability allows it to be used in marine simulators for personnel training and marine operation assessment. The performance of DECICE is also addressed and improved via the implementation of a new contact detection sequence and parallel considerations.

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