Moored floating offshore drilling and production structures located in ice covered waters are subject to forces from waves, pack ice and, in rare cases, to forces from icebergs. Wave and pack ice forces are classified as frequent forces and are calculated using standard procedures. Forces from iceberg impacts on the hulls of structures have been established considering the structure to be rigid. In the case of moored structures where the loads on the moorings and anchors are required, this assumption of rigidity is too restrictive and leads to overly conservative load estimates. Procedures are described which take into account the mooring stiffness and lead to more realistic loads for the anchors in the rare event of an iceberg impact.

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