This paper focuses on a comparison of sub sea and surface petroleum developments and discusses the application of sub sea developments in Arctic waters. The paper highlights the benefits of sub sea developments and compares these to the benefits of surface developments. Among important parameters to consider are the water depths at the sites and the ice conditions, as well as the regularity of the operations. Reference are given to developments on the Canadian Shelf offshore Newfoundland and to recent developments in the Barents Sea where the Snøhvit development represents the first full field sub sea development in the Arctic. The potential for extension of the Snøhvit technology to deepwater Arctic gas condensate fields is discussed. It is emphasized that the ice conditions have to be taken into account when selecting field development concepts for the Arctic offshore.

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