A Russian pioneering project, operated by Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Limited has produced oil in its first six years, from the bottom founded structure, Molikpaq, and taken the oil to an FSO and exported from it using export tankers. The operation has used basically an open water system. The FSO and the buoy for oil export have been upgraded for limited ice operations for the beginning and end of the ice season. A significant amount of oil production and export have also been performed in the presence of ice, safely and successfully. These operations in ice have been feasible through the use of high level intelligence in respect to ice, risk evaluations and management techniques, specifically developed for this project including the use of icebreakers in defense of the operations.

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