Froude laws are inductive therefore not universally applicable. The relation between Froude and Kelvin, and Froude and Wigley are made explicit. Transonic Hull (TH) has hydrodynamic characteristics not predictable by Froude’s laws. In Transonic Hydrofield (THF) Theory TH’s 3-D triangular shape induces a submerged current - subduction effect - that replaces and substantially precludes bow wave, reducing or eliminating wave making drag growth. TH’s ability to transverse waves without diminishing their energy eliminates slam. TH’s unprecedented breakthroughs with large magnitude are: substantially no bow or stern wave; full displacement regime and near zero pitch independent of speed; linear drag-speed function with greatly reduced wave making (residual) drag; accelerations in a sea that decrease with increasing speed; no slam at any speed and sea conditions. CFD studies of TH-900 vs. Fastship and TH-4022 vs. Axe Bow 4103 shows reduction of drag from 20% to 37% with gains of weight/drag from 33% to 59%. Gains originate from much smaller residual drag. Pre-feasibility studies demonstrate that TH’s triangular waterplanes houses same contents and payloads as conventional vessels provided TH has larger length and beam. TH-1200 Strategic Lift with full payload and range has exceptional high L/D at high speed in Von-Karman-Gabrielli chart.
Transonic Hull: Theory, Validation, Breakthroughs and Applications to Ships
Calderon, Alberto A., and Brian Maskew. "Transonic Hull: Theory, Validation, Breakthroughs and Applications to Ships." Paper presented at the SNAME 13th International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation, Washington, DC, September 2015. doi: https://doi.org/10.5957/FAST-2015-024
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