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Naturally occurring radioactive materials

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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Health, Safety, and Security Environment Conference and Exhibition, September 10–12, 2007
Paper Number: SPE-108873-MS
... Industry The problem of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials or NORM in the petroleum industry has been recognized to the extent that American Petroleum Institute(API) proposed options for disposal of NORM wastes produced in the oil and gas industries. The main NORM issues in this industry arise...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the European Petroleum Conference, October 20–22, 1998
Paper Number: SPE-50686-MS
... Abstract Most natural raw materials contain small traces of radionuclides from the uranium and thorium decay series. They are widely known as Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Depending on production or processing parameters these materials can be deposited as a scale...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, March 27–29, 1995
Paper Number: SPE-29712-MS
... Abstract A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Conference, January 25–27, 1994
Paper Number: SPE-27216-MS
... radioactive scale barium spe 27216 hydrocarbon radioactive waste oil production Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 27216 Disposal of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Oil Production R.N. Diyashev, * TatNIPlneft Inst.; S.F. Takhautdinov, TatNeft Co.; and G.P. Antonov, I.R. Diyashev, * V.1...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, March 21–23, 1993
Paper Number: SPE-25485-MS
... Summary BaSO4 scale containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) as well as calcium carbonate scale has been reported in gas production facilities in conjunction with the Antrim play in northern Michigan. The scale study was undertaken by the Water Research Institute, Inc. (WRI) under...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, March 2–5, 1993
Paper Number: SPE-25156-MS
... Abstract Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and souring have been observed in certain gas production facilities associated with wells producing from the Antrim shale in northern Michigan. The results of a study managed by the Gas Research Institute have shown that only 1 of 99...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Conference, November 11–14, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-23384-MS
... INTRODUCTION This paper will attempt to explain some of the mystery associated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) by describing what NORM is; how it is associated with oil and gas; what problems NORM may present; how it can be measured; and what current and pending...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Conference, November 11–14, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-23381-MS
... Abstract A number of health and safety issues have arisen because of the occurrence of NORM, naturally occurring radioactive materials of the 226 radium and 228 radium decay chains, in production operations. Issues such as risk to workers or the general public, disposal of contaminated...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Conference, November 11–14, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-23500-MS
... Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE 23500 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials: The Next Step E.C. Thayer, Exxon Co. IntI., and L.M. Racioppi, Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc. Copyright 1991, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc. This paper was prepared for presentation at the First International...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, October 6–9, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-22879-MS
... level radiation procedure protection radioactive material technician contamination SPE SPE 22879 The Management of Occupational and Environmental Exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) H.T. Miller, E.D. Bruce, and L.M. Cook, Chevron Corp. Copyright 1991, Society...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, April 12–14, 2010
Paper Number: SPE-127128-MS
... Abstract Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), has been in existence since the Big Bang. With industrial practices involving natural resources, this material can also be classified in its technically enhanced form (TENORM). Much has been documented and published on this subject...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Health, Safety, Security and Environment Conference, August 4–6, 2009
Paper Number: SPE-123482-MS
... Abstract It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) may accumulate in the oil/gas production process. This can create a radiation hazard for workers, the general public and the environment if adequate controls are not established. Regulations and guidelines...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Health, Safety, Security and Environment Conference, August 4–6, 2009
Paper Number: SPE-123496-MS
... Abstract The contamination of oil and gas processing equipment with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) bearing scales can present a radiological hazard in addition to restricted operability. NORM contaminated equipment cannot be released for sale or re-use as it has enhanced...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, April 15–17, 2008
Paper Number: SPE-111562-MS
..., clastics sandstone and siltstone (Fig. 2). In 2006 new economic discoveries for light oil and gas has been found in Triassic formation. Log techniques in bore holes reveal high natural radiation in rocks especially rich organic shaly rocks. These are known naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM...
Journal Articles
J Can Pet Technol 36 (10).
Paper Number: PETSOC-97-10-01
Published: 01 October 1997
...S.E. Woods; S.E. Abernathy Radiation exposure at levels associated with oil and gas industry naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) is not known to cause injury; however, many companies have adopted policies to address NORM because of increased public concern and regulatory awareness...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, March 27–29, 1995
Paper Number: SPE-29765-MS
... SPE Members Abstract This paper presents a case history of ARCO Oil and Gas Company's (AOGC) Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) injection project that was conducted offshore in the Gulf of Mexico. The unique aspect of this project is that it was performed entirely offshore, using...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, March 7–10, 1993
Paper Number: SPE-25940-MS
... Abstract This presentation will address the Minerals Management Service (MMS), Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Region's Letter to Lessees and Operators (LTL) concerning removal and disposal of produced well solids that contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, October 4–7, 1992
Paper Number: SPE-24563-MS
... attractive alternative Abstract Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) has been deposited in tanks, pipelines and pits of many oil fields in North America. Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and escalating disposal costs will make NORM a major environmental issue in the 1990s...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, September 23–26, 1990
Paper Number: SPE-20616-MS
... specific-activity radioactive material, frequently referred to as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This material is now regulated in the state of Louisiana. When removing scaled tubing from a well in Louisiana, a survey is required to determine the radiation level. This information is used...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 62 (08): 65–66.
Paper Number: SPE-0810-0065-JPT
Published: 01 August 2010
... of current best practice and innovative thinking, provided the les-sons learned and progress over the last century are remembered. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) Opinions differ on what exactly is meant by the term NORM. Reports of the occurrence of significant concentrations...

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