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Mixed layer clays

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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference Asia, March 22–25, 2016
Paper Number: OTC-26835-MS
... foundation are presented to confirm soil improvement influence using DMM (Deep Mixing Method) with native soil material. The results from 3D large deformation finite element (LDFE) analyses are reported on vertical penetration of skirted spudcan into multilayer clays. The LDFE analyses were carried out using...
Proceedings Papers

Publisher: Society of Exploration Geophysicists
Paper presented at the SEG/AAPG International Meeting for Applied Geoscience & Energy, August 28–September 1, 2022
Paper Number: SEG-2022-3751251
... content of mixed-layer clays can be used to calibrate the thermal history of the basin (Pevear, 1999). These factors make clay mineral and related reactions important in petroleum development and exploration. Hower et al. (1976) showed that smectite-rich mixed-layer clay converts to illite-rich clay...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 33 (01): 26–32.
Paper Number: SPE-7926-PA
Published: 01 January 1981
... formations. The gas formations in Alberta may contain 20 to 30% mixed-layer clays containing smectite and other clays (Table 2), causing these formations to be extremely water sensitive. Clays can be observed in the scanning electron microscope micrographs shown in Figs. 3 and 4. Fig. 3 is a micrograph...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, October 4–7, 1981
Paper Number: SPE-10077-MS
.... The following clays are present: kaolinite, illite, chlorite, montmorillonite and mixed layer clays. The mineralogy of the heavy oil deposits varies so widely that each area requires individual characterization. The majority of recovery processes being field tested utilize injection of high pressure steam...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 36 (09): 1545–1551.
Paper Number: SPE-11837-PA
Published: 01 September 1984
... Sandstone, 5,839 ft [1780 m]. These cores showed moderately sorted, medium-to-finely grained quartz, chert. feldspar, and detrital mica as framework grains. Intergrain pore space had been coated initially with mixed-layer clay then the overgrowth cemented. Remaining pore space was partially infilled...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Symposium on Formation Damage Control, January 30–February 1, 1974
Paper Number: SPE-4785-MS
... frequently been found in these horizons are montmorillonite, mixed layer, illite, kaolinite and chlorite. A correlation has been developed that indicates the types of clays that may be expected in certain areas and depth of burial in the Gulf Coast region. All of the above noted clays are capable...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 23–25, 2018
Paper Number: URTEC-2901840-MS
... core/logs. K, ϕ, Sw, and Pc are measured using CA. μCT is then used to characterize the distribution of the five principal pCT-image phases; grains(G), intergranular ϕ (IG), large clay (kaolinite) + intercrystalline ϕ (IX), small mixed-layer clay + microcrystalline ϕ (MIX), and altered lithics...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Abnormal Subsurface Pressure Symposium, May 15–16, 1972
Paper Number: SPE-3852-MS
... engineers and geologists is the observed diagenetic conversion of montmorillonite to mixed-layered clay m~neral forms under conditions of deep sediment burial at low geothermal temperatures (~500°F). The origin of these clay mineral transformations may be related to the existence of the overpressured zones...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, April 15–17, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-21851-MS
..., and mudstone clasts. Microporosity, estimated as the difference between porosimeter and thin-section porosity, averages 6%. Calcite, quartz, mixed-layer illite-smectite, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite are the most abundant cements. Authigenic mixed-layer clays consist of about 80% illite layers, suggesting...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 17 (10): 1213–1218.
Paper Number: SPE-1206-PA
Published: 01 October 1965
... of water sensitivity have attributed this reduction in permeability to the blocking of pores and reduction of pore size by the increased volume occupied by expanded montmorillonite, if the sand contains a detectable amount of montmorillonite or mixed-layer clay containing montmorillonite. Logically...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, February 28–March 3, 1989
Paper Number: SPE-18640-MS
... of highly reactive smectitic and mixed layered clays (Table 1.), rapidly hydrate when exposed to free water. These hydrated clays are then incorporated into the mud system. The hydration of these clays causes two problems. As the clays on the formation face are hydrated, they are removed from the formation...
Journal Articles
SPE Prod & Oper 14 (04): 253–259.
Paper Number: SPE-57393-PA
Published: 01 November 1999
...H. A. Nasr-El-Din; A. A. Al-Mulhem; J. D. Lynn Summary An oil field in central Saudi Arabia produces super-light crude from a sandstone reservoir. The formation contains up to 7.0 wt% authigenic clays dominated by kaolinite and illite/montmorillonite mixed layer clays. To mitigate sand production...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Conference, February 18–19, 1998
Paper Number: SPE-39584-MS
... Abstract An oil field in central Saudi Arabia produces super-light crude from a sandstone reservoir. The formation contains up to 2 wt. percent authigenic clays dominated by kaolinite and illite/montmorillonite mixed layer clays. To improve well productivity, a well stimulation treatment has...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, February 21–23, 2022
Paper Number: IPTC-22187-MS
... to 0.5 while well C potassium concentration ranged between 1 to 2. The figure indicates that mixed layer clay and montomonlionite are predominated in well D while illite and muscovite are predominated in well C. Photoelectric factor- Potassium (%) (Pe – K) Cross plot PE-K cross plots is used...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, February 8–9, 1988
Paper Number: SPE-17159-MS
... to a variety of drilling fluids and filtrates. This was done to determine why some drilling fluids are more damaging to permeabilities than others. The clay minerals in these sandstones, which are mostly diagenetic, include chlorite, kaolinite, and pore -bridging mixed-layer illite-smectite. The greatest...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, August 12–14, 2013
Paper Number: URTEC-1619333-MS
..., wettability) and chemical properties of shale rocks depend strongly on the type and amount of clay minerals present. Clay particles can be distributed in a shale according to three general locations such as pore-lining clays (mixed layer clays), pore-bridging clays (illite), and discrete particles (kaolinite...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Trinidad and Tobago Section Energy Resources Conference, June 13–15, 2016
Paper Number: SPE-180842-MS
... that are customized and tailored to reservoir characteristics, has proven to be effective at enhancing production in this field. The types of clays that are present include kaolinite, illite, smectite, chlorite, and mixed-layer clays; feldspars are also present. An adequate analysis of each well helps to ensure...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, November 9–12, 2020
Paper Number: SPE-202754-MS
... rocks consist of mixed-layer clays and are very heterogeneous. The shale samples were then characterized by X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to gain an understanding of preexisting microfractures. The XCT results show that multiple cracks are irregularly distributed...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 32 (12): 2121–2131.
Paper Number: SPE-7895-PA
Published: 01 December 1980
... the most expandable in the presence of water, particularly fresh or low-salinity waters similar to those associated with steaming techniques. Mixed-layer clays, containing smectite intermixed with other clays, also are classified as expandable. In addition to causing pore plugging, expanding clays can...
Journal Articles
Petrophysics 58 (03): 221–231.
Paper Number: SPWLA-2017-v58n3a1
Published: 01 June 2017
... and mixed-layer clays. Measured LECO™ TOC content is 1.6 ± 0.6 wt%. SEM images reveal that the organic matter is generally nonporous. Crushed helium porosity varies between 3.7 and 6.6%. The NMR porosity measurements show good agreement between the field and laboratory. NMR results from imbibition...

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