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Flat refractor

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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 1988 SEG Annual Meeting, October 30–November 3, 1988
Paper Number: SEG-1988-0574
...,= cosi, . This correction requires knowledge of the weathering ana subweathering velocities in addition to the delay times. The second correction from the refractor to a flat datur requires information on the weathering velocity to establis: the refractor elevation and information about the subweatheI...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2015 SEG Annual Meeting, October 18–23, 2015
Paper Number: SEG-2015-5868345
... in order to enforce flatness among those model parameters (equation 3). 1 1 0 0 1 1 = 0 0 (3) If, on the other hand, the functional relationship between model parameter is assumed to be linear, then each row of the regularization matrix would contain a second order finite difference...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2006 SEG Annual Meeting, October 1–6, 2006
Paper Number: SEG-2006-2426
... example includes a curved layer and uses the same recording geometry: Numerical Examples To illustrate the concept, we demonstrate the above procedures with synthetics and flat model first. Figure 2: a 2-layer model and the recording geometry Figure 3 shows two shot gathers generated from raytracing. They...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2012 SEG Annual Meeting, November 4–9, 2012
Paper Number: SEG-2012-1172
... values generally are closer to 2. The results are comparable to the values obtained from well log data located in the same area. - The Vp/Vs for the shale gas zone of interest located at 1400 ms is lower compared to non-reservoir shale. The presence of flat cracks affects Vp/Vs, decreasing its value with...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2010 SEG Annual Meeting, October 17–22, 2010
Paper Number: SEG-2010-1985
... of sedimentary deposit made of sandy gravel with clay. The quaternary depth is supposed to be at 270 m below the ground and lies on Eocenic Flysch (Barison, 2008). Seismic data We acquired two seismic lines in the same location by using both P and S sources. The area is quite flat and the mean...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2016 SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, October 16–21, 2016
Paper Number: SEG-2016-13864908
... application evaporite sequence flat refractor model seismic data velocity inversion impedance contrast annual meeting seg seg international exposition refraction static refractor upstream oil & gas Powers , D. W. , R. M. Holt , R. L. Beauheim , and R. G. Richardson , 2006...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 5th World Petroleum Congress, May 30–June 5, 1959
Paper Number: WPC-8033
... measurements on waves from refractors which are thick, thin, and anticlinal. For thick, flat-lying refractors the residual attenuation after allowing for the geometrical spread of energy is consistent with it being due mainly to absorption. For sedimentary refractors the residual attenuation is nearly 1.0 db...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2009 SEG Annual Meeting, October 25–30, 2009
Paper Number: SEG-2009-1416
... velocity models with rugged topography using refraction travel-time based on the assumption of slow lateral near-surface velocity variation, and the assumption to the refractor is relaxed to two inclined flat ones. Since only the refraction travel times and the elevation differences between the...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2006 SEG Annual Meeting, October 1–6, 2006
Paper Number: SEG-2006-1421
... Plus/Minus refraction method applied to a 3D block Ralph Bridle, Saudi Aramco Summary The surface conditions in Saudi Arabia demonstrate significant variability ranging from flat gravel plains to barchan sand dunes and desert washouts (wadis). Saudi Aramco has used a single layer velocity model...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2006 SEG Annual Meeting, October 1–6, 2006
Paper Number: SEG-2006-3021
... refraction shot gathers. The benefits are that traveltime picking errors can be greatly reduced for noisy head wave arrivals such as far offset refraction events or secondary head-wave arrivals. We also show that head-wave events in a redatumed common geophone-pair gather will follow a flat trajectory in...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, September 15–20, 2019
Paper Number: SEG-2019-3216713
... most primitive approaches (e.g., migration-from-flat-datum or migration from topography while populating the shallow model with a spatially homogenous "replacement" velocity), the migrated gathers exhibit significant residual moveout, and applying a tomographic velocity update to improve flattening...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 22–24, 2019
Paper Number: URTEC-2019-399-MS
..., migration-from-flat-datum or migration from topography where the shallow velocity cells are flooded with a spatially uniform “replacement” velocity), the migrated gathers exhibit significant residual moveout, and applying a tomographic velocity update to improve flattening leads to a significant error in...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2018 SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, October 14–19, 2018
Paper Number: SEG-2018-2997700
... effectiveness of these methods in the areas with near surface velocity reversal. The test results suggest all three methods can recover reasonable statics solutions if the shallow velocity layers are simple and relatively flat. For more complex models with an undulated near surface high-velocity layer with...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2017 SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, September 24–29, 2017
Paper Number: SEG-2017-17786247
... in general. In this study, we develop a unique high-resolution interferometric imaging method based on a new marine FreeCable acquisition geometry that allows applying interferometric transformation for each individual shot gather. This survey geometry sets a flat recording cable in deep water, and...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 24–26, 2017
Paper Number: URTEC-2691095-MS
... investigated but the effect was not large enough to influence the flatness of the gather events and therefore no HTI correction was done. After the full azimuthal pre-stack time migration, the CDP gathers went through additional noise cancellation and multiple attenuation processes before angle stacks were...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, July 27–31, 2020
Paper Number: SPE-198994-MS
Journal Articles
International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering 30 (01): 86–93.
Paper Number: ISOPE-20-30-1-086
Published: 01 March 2020
... anthropogenic impact. In the simu- lation, a flat one-dimensional problem was solved (the heat flux coming from the soils bounding the computational domain from the bottom and from the sides was not incorporated into the model). At the upper boundary of the computational domain, a boundary condition of the...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the The 29th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, June 16–21, 2019
Paper Number: ISOPE-I-19-598
... simulation, a flat one-dimensional problem was solved (the heat flux coming from the soils bounding the computational domain from the bottom and from the sides was not incorporated into the model). At the upper boundary of the computational domain, a boundary condition of the first kind (temperature on the...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition & Conference, November 12–15, 2018
Paper Number: SPE-193041-MS
... propose a method that exploits these traits of the refracted waves and that derives the initial 3D velocity model for the tomography workflow directly from the first-break picks. The method recovers a low-dimensionality approximation (i.e., one-dimensional distribution or flat infinite layers with...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 2018 SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, October 14–19, 2018
Paper Number: SEG-2018-2995368
... method that exploits these traits of the refracted waves and that derives the initial 3D velocity model for the tomography workflow directly from the first-break picks. The method recovers a low-dimensionality approximation (i.e., one-dimensional distribution or flat infinite layers with constant value...

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