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Dissolved constituents in produced water

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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE African Health, Safety, Security, Environment, and Social Responsibility Conference and Exhibition, October 4–6, 2016
Paper Number: SPE-183610-MS
... model will be presented. MPPE treats Offshore produced water since 1994 with a 99% removal performance of dissolved and dispersed Oil, BTEX, Poly Cyclic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other non-polar toxic constituents. Examples of applications in the North Sea, Europe (TOTAL, Statoil, Shell) and Australia...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition, March 28–30, 2007
Paper Number: OMC-2007-033
... Constituents in produced water As indicated, the dispersed oil content can vary from 100 ppm down to 40 or even 30 or less ppm depending on the platform and the flotation, coalescing techniques being applied. Toxic dissolved hydrocarbons and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, Xylene) can vary between 100...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, June 26–28, 2000
Paper Number: SPE-61179-MS
... water are the major contributors to the local environmental risk of produced water discharged from Draugen, i.e. any future corrosion inhibitor, the dissolved aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAH. Potential long- term effects were also evaluated for the natural constituents in produced water, since most...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, May 2–5, 2011
Paper Number: OTC-21997-MS
... for detecting and measuring the dispersed fraction. In this paper we will outline the major constituents of produced water, summarize current sampling/measurement methods for dispersed oil, qualitatively evaluate how temperature may impact the composition of dissolved and dispersed fractions, and outline...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Nigeria Annual International Conference and Exhibition, August 4–6, 2015
Paper Number: SPE-178364-MS
... the management method being carried out, the physio-chemical properties and trace metals constituents of produced water from a well in the Niger-Delta to determine the extent of compliance with standards of discharge. The results obtained showed that the pH values, Zinc, copper and cadmium were within...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, March 29–31, 2004
Paper Number: SPE-86708-MS
.... Oil is a generic term that encompasses a wide spectrum of compounds, mainly hydrocarbons, the properties of which vary widely. Oil is present in produced water both in the dispersed phase (as oil droplets) and in the dissolved phase. Most aliphatic constituents are found in the dispersed phase only...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 44 (05): 548–603.
Paper Number: SPE-23313-PA
Published: 01 May 1992
...M.T. Stephenson Summary Produced water contains many different constituents. Each has a different impact on the environment when present in discharged water. All these components have been studied at various times and for diverse reasons by several organizations. These studies, which cover...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, February 3–5, 2015
Paper Number: SPE-173366-MS
... Effluent Guidelines Program Plans; both addressed in this paper. Discussed are the various treatment technologies currently deployed and permitting issues associated with the treatment facilities. When treating produced water for discharge, constituent levels in the effluent stream and the waste side...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, April 27–30, 2003
Paper Number: SPE-81186-MS
..., the volume of produced water can be several orders of magnitude greater than hydrocarbons produced. The environmental impact of produced water arises from its chemical composition (both naturally and induced). The constituents of concern in produced water are chlorides, hydrocarbons (dissolved and suspended...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Oilfield Water Management Conference and Exhibition, April 21–22, 2014
Paper Number: SPE-171000-MS
... for removal [8] . Well fluid has some polar hydrocarbon constituents that occur naturally in produced water including organic acids, low molecular-weight aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), PAHs specially NPDs (Naphtalenes, Phenanthrenes...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Oilfield and Geothermal Chemistry Symposium, June 27–28, 1977
Paper Number: SPE-6603-MS
..., chloride, bromide, and dissolved gases. In addition, they usually contain numerous other minor and trace constituents, as shown in Tables 1, 2, and 3· Makeup Water Because the quantity of produced water (water produced with petroleum or oilfield water) often is not sufficient to meet the requirements...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and Western Regional Meeting, March 16–18, 2004
Paper Number: SPE-86948-MS
... in the produced water has been removed by conventional processes, such as wash tanks, dissolved gas floatation, and walnut shell filtration. The following is a list of conceptual treatment processes and the constituent(s), which these processes will remove: Warm Lime Softening (WLS) - Carbonate Hardness...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Americas E&P Health, Safety, Security, and Environmental Conference, March 21–23, 2011
Paper Number: SPE-141448-MS
... Abstract Recycling produced water and fracture flow back water for hydraulic fracturing can contribute significantly to water supplies for unconventional gas field development. Waste water may also be cleaned to supplement fresh water supplies for drilling and cementing surface pipe, surface...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, September 28–30, 2015
Paper Number: SPE-174800-MS
... receptor compartment aquifer concentration flowback water constituent society of petroleum engineers produced water discharge bromate groundwater environmental risk Presentation of SPE-174800-MS Presentation of SPE-174800-MS The introduction in 1998 of Norway's zero harm policy...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Latin America/Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, April 23–26, 1996
Paper Number: SPE-36159-MS
... to be quantified. In our installations, the major contributor to the oil & grease was the dissolved organics, which suggested that tertiary technologies would be required to reduce the levels. By correlation of analytical results from sixteen (16) produced waters, the ASTM D4281 Method was found...
Journal Articles
J Pet Technol 68 (12): 66.
Paper Number: SPE-1216-0066-JPT
Published: 01 December 2016
... amounts of total dissolved solids (TDS) are also produced in the process. Most of the produced water usually is reinjected into disposal wells. This practice has become a topic of public concern after reports of earthquakes began approximately 5 years ago in the central United States, where disposal wells...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/EPA Exploration and Production Environmental Conference, March 7–10, 1993
Paper Number: SPE-25941-MS
..., the responsible operators were asked to submit geographical and geological information relevant to their discharges. The information supplied by operators was studied to determine whether correlations existed between radium 226 and other chemical constituents of produced waters. Geological information was also...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 26–28, 2021
Paper Number: URTEC-2021-5363-MS
... and arise from the geochemical interplay between injected, base fluids, additives mixed into the base fluids, drilling mud, and minerals in the rock. Mineral scaling has been found to exhibit two major types of behaviors based on where the constituents are sourced from: Outside-in, where dissolved mineral...
Journal Articles
SPE Proj Fac & Const 3 (02): 1–10.
Paper Number: SPE-106814-PA
Published: 01 June 2008
.... The objectives of this study were to assess the incremental impacts of produced water discharges on dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and to evaluate the significance of these discharges relative to loadings from the MRB. Predictive simulations were conducted with three existing models of Gulf...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE International Health, Safety & Environment Conference, April 2–4, 2006
Paper Number: SPE-98567-MS
... formation, and the type of hydrocarbon being produced. Oil and grease (O&G) and salts are the primary constituents of concern with onshore operations. Organic constituents are normally either dispersed or dissolved in produced water. Dispersed organics refer to oil droplets suspended in the aqueous phase...

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