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2.5 Hydraulic fracturing

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Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, October 29–31, 2019
Paper Number: SPE-196291-MS
... of the well to recover most of frac fluid in formation due to reservoirs have been very depleted with pore pressure below 2.5 Ppg. From this finding it is deemed that reservoirs with pore pressure less than 2.5 Ppg are not suitable as hydraulic fracturing candidates and therefore losing opportunity...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 55th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 18–25, 2021
Paper Number: ARMA-2021-1064
... analysis of the fracture network shows that the width of fracture process zone around the primary fracture is enhanced by a factor of 2.5 in pre-post breakdown cyclic injection fracturing. Our results provide laboratory-scale evidence of the concept of cyclic injection hydraulic fracturing in tight rocks...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 20–22, 2020
Paper Number: URTEC-2020-2568-MS
... at the best of times. Over the last decade, unconventional resources have become a significant source of the total production output in various parts of the world, and the primary stimulation treatment used is hydraulic fracturing. This technique sections a wellbore into multiple stages into which highly...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 54th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 28–July 1, 2020
Paper Number: ARMA-2020-1219
... of hydraulic fracturing cracks are analyzed by acoustic emission technology, and the following conclusions are obtained: The use of step loading reduces the breakdown pressure. Under the horizontal well condition, the breakdown pressure decreases by 2.5%, and under the vertical well condition, the breakdown...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, July 26–28, 2021
Paper Number: URTEC-2021-5512-MS
... Abstract Here we highlight a case study of the results of production monitoring of a hydraulically fractured horizontal well using a wireline deployed fiber optic cable. A well was chosen for production monitoring within the operator's large acreage position in East Texas so that the learnings...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 23–26, 2019
Paper Number: ARMA-2019-0021
... the hydraulic fracture propagation processes. Distilled water was injected at an average rate of 2.5 mL/min until the sample failed. As expected, a hydraulic fracture formed perpendicular to the externally applied minimum principal stress. Due to the nature of tensile fractures, the relative plasticity...
Journal Articles
OIJ 2018 (11): 108–113.
Paper Number: OIJ-2018-11-108-113-RU
Published: 01 November 2018
... geological (55%) in comparison with the sand reservoir type. In the conditions under consideration, testing of hydraulic fracturing (frac) technologies occurred separately for the conditions of each type of reservoir. Since 2005, the history of industrial application of modern approaches and equipment...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 53rd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 23–26, 2019
Paper Number: ARMA-2019-0263
.... The formula of fracturing fluid is 0.5 wt% polymer GX-100 + 0.65 wt% cross-linker WQ-180 + 2.5 wt% pH regulator+weighting agent KCl. Results show that the fluid system has excellent temperature and shear resistance, and capable of achieving density up to 1.30 g/cm 3 . Under 180°C, 170 s -1 condition...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the The 34th U.S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics (USRMS), June 28–30, 1993
Paper Number: ARMA-93-0617
... (Figure 1). These faults are referred to as Fracture Zone 3 and Fracture Zone 2 and their splays as Fracture Zones 2.5 and 1.9. The fracture zones divide the rock mass into distinct stress domains [1]. The rock mass from the surface to Fracture Zone 2.5 contains two or more regular joint sets, which...
Journal Articles
Journal: SPE Journal
SPE J. 25 (02): 573–586.
Paper Number: SPE-199893-PA
Published: 16 April 2020
... the hydraulic fractures into the under‐stimulated region of the reservoir, and, thus, to obtain better coverage of the created fracture network. In this study, the commonly used true tri‐axial hydraulic fracturing system is modified to investigate the influences of various factors on the injection pressure...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 52nd U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 17–20, 2018
Paper Number: ARMA-2018-020
... ABSTRACT: The pumping rate is low due to higher in-situ stress and initiation pressure, so that the fracture width and the corresponding proppant concentration are all limited. Due to high differential stress between maximum horizontal stress minimum, the hydraulic fracture tend...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, March 20–22, 1991
Paper Number: SPE-21778-MS
... reservoir 40 miles [64 km] west of Bakersfield, California. Primary wells on 2.5-acre [10 E+3 m2J Primary wells on 2.5-acre [10 E+3 m2J spacing were completed with 3-5 hydraulic fracture stages. Infill drilling to 1.25-acre [5 E+3 m2] spacing commenced in earnest in 1987. In anticipation of the additional...
Journal Articles
SPE Res Eval & Eng 19 (01): 054–069.
Paper Number: SPE-168761-PA
Published: 22 December 2015
... ). In the regions surrounding the hydraulic fractures where r  < 2.5 H and θ  < 50°, the critically stressed faults and fractures (or any other kind of discontinuities), if they exist, are expected to slip on fault planes and to create a network of permeable flow paths, thus enhancing productivity from...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, August 12–14, 2013
Paper Number: URTEC-1580301-MS
...) (Figure 1). Our study focuses on stimulation of wells X and Z. The middle well, Y, was hydraulically fractured and produced for about 2.5 years prior to stimulation of wells X and Z. Well-log data, including gamma ray, electrical resistivity, density, and P- and S-wave sonic velocity are available...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Low Perm Symposium, May 5–6, 2016
Paper Number: SPE-180215-MS
... Abstract Hydraulic fracturing operations require large amount of water which, in some cases, could reach six million gallons per treatment. Fresh water, from surface and subsurface sources, is usually used to formulate the fracturing fluid. The use of produced water in hydraulic fracturing has...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 50th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 26–29, 2016
Paper Number: ARMA-2016-587
... of shale is about 2.5-3 km [24, 49] (Fig. 1), the overburden pressure is assumed to exceed the fluid pressure. Consequently, all the fractures and joints are modeled as essentially vertical, and no horizontal fractures allowed. Figure 1: Overall scheme of hydraulic fracturing: a) One of many segments...
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the 55th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, June 18–25, 2021
Paper Number: ARMA-2021-1057
... a complex fracture network is the key technology for efficient development of shale gas reservoirs [6-9]. In the process of hydraulic fracturing and long-term production of shale gas wells, the contact between fracturing fluid and shale always exists [10-13]. Due to the differences in geological...
Journal Articles
Journal: SPE Journal
SPE J. 19 (04): 608–620.
Paper Number: SPE-163860-PA
Published: 28 August 2013
..., then multiple Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) -like hydraulic fractures are predicted to continue growing, with the length of each hydraulic fracture increasing throughout the injection and with a spacing that is approximately 1.5 H when perforation losses are strong and approximately 2.5 H when perforation losses...
Journal Articles
Journal: SPE Journal
SPE J. (2021)
Paper Number: SPE-206713-PA
Published: 28 June 2021
... for spatiotemporal activation of the nearby faults in Fox Creek, where all major events [with a moment magnitude ( M w ) greater than 2.5] are caused by the increase in pore pressure and poroelastic stress during the fracturing operation. In addition, an integrated geological index (IGI) and a combined geomechanical...
Includes: Supplementary Content
Proceedings Papers

Paper presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, February 4–6, 2013
Paper Number: SPE-163860-MS
... to a height H , then multiple PKN-like hydraulic fractures are predicted to continue growing, with the length of each hydraulic fracture increasing throughout the injection and with a spacing that is approximately 1.5 H when perforation losses are strong and approximately 2.5 H when perforation losses...

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