We develop a deep-learning (DL) inversion method for the interpretation of 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) borehole resistivity measurements that requires negligible online computational costs. The method is successfully verified with the inversion of triaxial logging-while-drilling (LWD) resistivity measurements acquired across faulted and anisotropic formations. Our DL inversion workflow employs four independent DL architectures. The first one identifies the type of geological structure among several predefined types. Subsequently, the second, third, and fourth architectures estimate the corresponding spatial resistivity distributions that are parameterized (1) without the crossings of bed boundaries or fault plane, (2) with the crossing of a bed boundary but without the crossing of a fault plane, and (3) with the crossing of the fault plane, respectively. Each DL architecture employs convolutional layers and is trained with synthetic data obtained from an accurate high-order, mesh-adaptive finite-element forward numerical simulator. Numerical results confirm the importance of using multicomponent resistivity measurements—specifically cross-coupling resistivity components—for the successful reconstruction of 2.5D resistivity distributions adjacent to the well trajectory. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed inversion workflow are assessed with two synthetic examples inspired by actual field measurements. Results confirm that the proposed DL method successfully reconstructs 2.5D resistivity distributions, location and dip of bed boundaries, and the location of the fault plane and is, therefore, reliable for real-time well geosteering applications.
Real-Time 2.5D Inversion of LWD Resistivity Measurements Using Deep Learning for Geosteering Applications Across Faulted Formations
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Noh, Kyubo, Torres-Verdín, Carlos, and David Pardo. "Real-Time 2.5D Inversion of LWD Resistivity Measurements Using Deep Learning for Geosteering Applications Across Faulted Formations." Petrophysics 63 (2022): 506–518. doi: https://doi.org/10.30632/PJV63N4-2022a2
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