Sedimentary geometry on borehole images usually summarizes the arrangement of bed boundaries, erosive surfaces, crossbedding, sedimentary dip, and/or deformed beds. The interpretation, very often manual, requires a good level of expertise, is time consuming, can suffer from user bias, and becomes very challenging when dealing with highly deviated wells. Bedform geometry interpretation from crossbed data is rarely completed from a borehole image. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated method to interpret sedimentary structures, including the bedform geometry resulting from the change in flow direction from borehole images.
Automation is achieved in this unique interpretation methodology using deep learning (DL). The first task comprised the creation of a training data set of 2D borehole images. This library of images was then used to train deep neural network models. Testing different architectures of convolutional neural networks (CNN) showed the ResNet architecture to give the best performance for the classification of the different sedimentary structures. The validation accuracy was very high, in the range of 93 to 96%.
To test the developed method, additional logs of synthetic data were created as sequences of different sedimentary structures (i.e., classes) associated with different well deviations, with the addition of gaps. The model was able to predict the proper class in these composite logs and highlight the transitions accurately.