Refining Interpretation Models of Multiphase Flow for Existing and Next-Generation Production Logging Sensors
- Muhammad Abrar Manzar (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | Datong Sun (Baker Hughes, a GE Company) | David Chace (Baker Hughes, a GE Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 439 - 456
- 2018. Society of Petrophysicists & Well Log Analysts
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 82 since 2007
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Production logging (PL) in deviated and horizontal wells has many challenges including complexities of the flow regimes, inadequacies of measurements and insufficiencies of interpretation methodologies. These limitations result in uncertainties, which if not managed properly, can result in substantial errors in the calculated flow rates and can negatively affect well and reservoir management decisions.
For the deviated and horizontal flows, most of the currently available production logging tools deploy multiple minisensors that are distributed in different configurations across the flow area. The objective is to measure local velocity and phase holdups and to reconstruct profiles that are representative of the actual flow. Integrating the local velocity and phase-holdup information in the flow cross section enables calculation of individual phase flow rates and minimizes reliance on slip-velocity models.
A state-of-the-art flow-loop facility was used to test the Multiple Array Production Logging Tool and characterize its response under various multiphase flow conditions, including a variety of deviation angles and flow rates. This characterization enabled quantification of actual nonlinearity in the holdup sensor response and provided a better understanding of its sensitivity to different phase holdups. The resulting correlations enable more accurate phase holdup and flow-rate calculations that are compared to actual flow rates from the flow loop. These models require further verification with actual well data to evaluate variables like downhole flow conditions and fluid properties. This characterization also highlighted the limitations of some measurements in water-dominated flow regimes, which poses particular problems for three-phase flows that require at least two independent phase-holdup measurements.
Also investigated is the effect of sensor locations, tool decentralization and borehole coverage on the ability to measure accurate proportions of fluid phases and their representative velocities. For better results, recommendations for operation and interpretation of array PL tools are provided. A new tool design overcomes some of the existing challenges by virtue of features like independent gas-holdup measurement, colocated sensors, and more-robust independently moveable arms.
|File Size||37 MB||Number of Pages||18|