Using Digital Rock Technology to Quality Control and Reduce Uncertainty in Relative Permeability Measurements
- Josephina Schembre-McCabe (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Jairam Kamath (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petrophysicists and Well-Log Analysts
- Publication Date
- February 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 44 - 53
- 2018. Society of Petrophysicists & Well Log Analysts
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 176 since 2007
- Show more detail
Digital rock technology (DRT) has experienced tremendous progress in the last decade, with an increasing number of companies providing imaging hardware, modeling software and digital core analysis services. While prediction remains the most discussed application of DRT, this paper discusses its use to quality control water-displacing-oil relative permeability (kr) experimental measurements. The relative permeability data were collected from three wells over a span of seven years, and they showed a very large spread. To identify potential outliers, we performed micro-CT imaging on six samples that were selected based on similarity in rock properties but differences in measured relative permeability behavior. The three-phase segmentation process was guided by experimental values of porosity, permeability and clay. Consistency checks verified that we could reproduce permeability, drainage capillary pressure, and gas-oil relative permeability. Water-displacing- oil relative permeability was then calculated using pore-network models for water-wet and oil-wet conditions and used to establish a maximum range for each sample. This range was instrumental in identifying suspicious behavior, and reducing uncertainty in recovery predictions by confirming potential outliers and assisting in the upgrading of the experimental relative permeability data.
Digital rock technology (DRT)-based prediction of primary drainage and imbibition water-oil relative permeability can be in good agreement with experimental data if the pore structure, connectivity, and wettability of the porous media are captured accurately (Bakke and Øren, 1997; Øren et al., 1998; Blunt et al., 2002; Al-Kharusi and Blunt, 2008; Idowu et al., 2014; Golab et al., 2015; Massalmeh et al., 2015). However, accurate characterization of wettability inputs, such as contact angles and distribution of oil-wet surfaces, is a challenge (Bondino et al., 2013; Idowu et al., 2015). In this work, we use wettability measurements only as a guide, and focus on comparing experimental results with pore-network simulations of strongly water-wet and oil-wet relative permeability behavior. We expect these simulations to be reasonably accurate (Øren and Bakke, 2003; Valvatne and Blunt, 2004).
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||10|