Overview of Economic and Engineering Aspects of Corrosion in oil and Gas Production
- C.J. Cron (Union Oil) | G.A. Marsh (Union Oil)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1983
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,033 - 1,041
- 1983. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.9 Tanks and storage systems, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 3.1.1 Beam and related pumping techniques, 4.2.5 Offshore Pipelines, 4.6 Natural Gas, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.1.3 Dehydration, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers
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Distinguished Author Series articles are general, descriptiverepresentations that summarize the state of the art in an area of technology bydescribing recent developments for readers who are not specialists in thetopics discussed. Written by individuals recognized as experts in the area,these articles provide key references to more definitive work and presentspecific details only to illustrate the technology. Purpose: to informthe general readership of recent advances in various areas of petroleumengineering.
Corrosion in oil and gas production has important economic aspects. Thedirect losses resulting from corrosion--i.e., the cost of replacing corrodedparts--are often minor compared with indirect costs parts--are often minorcompared with indirect costs such as the loss of revenue caused by lost ordeferred production. An exception is the case of offshore production. Anexception is the case of offshore production, where the direct loss resultingfrom production, where the direct loss resulting from corrosion of an offshoreplatform can be extremely expensive.
Many phases of oil and gas production are affected by corrosion. Twocorrodents are responsible for problems found in the petroleum industry:dissolved problems found in the petroleum industry: dissolved oxygen and acidicspecies, most commonly CO2. Dissolved oxygen accounts for the corrosive natureof seawater and produced water and also for the corrosive nature of soil. CO2accounts for corrosion in many oil and gas wells. H2S, when present, rendersproblems with dissolved oxygen and CO2 even more serious. H2S also canintroduce a serious cracking problem, sulfide stress cracking (SSC), when itcontacts high- strength steel that is under stress. The combined action of acorrodent with cyclic (periodic) stress can result in corrosion fatigue, aproblem often found in drillpipe and in the sucker rods of pumped wells.
Besides serious downhole corrosion problems associated with oil and gasproduction, corrosion problems also occur frequently during waterflood problemsalso occur frequently during waterflood operations in which produced water orseawater is injected. In each case corrosion-preventive measures are available(such as oxygen removal or corrosion- inhibitor injection), but they requirecareful application.
Corrosion resulting from corrosive soil is potentially serious forpipelines, tank bottoms, and well casings. An electrical method of corrosioncontrol, cathodic protection, is often applicable to these cases. Offshoreprotection, is often applicable to these cases. Offshore platforms and relatedpipelines present severe potential platforms and related pipelines presentsevere potential corrosion problems that are controlled by coatings and bycathodic protection.
Corrosion is an economic as well as an engineering problem. The cost ofcorrosion to the worldwide problem. The cost of corrosion to the worldwideindustry is staggering. For example, in a 1975 study, the annual cost ofcorrosion in the U.S. alone was estimated at $70 billion. Of this total, about15% or $10 billion was considered avoidable--i.e., could be saved throughexisting corrosion-control technology. The cost of corrosion in the petroleumindustry no doubt represents a large fraction of the total cost.
Besides the economic importance of corrosion, two other aspects makecorrosion control an urgent consideration: conservation and human safety.Corrosion represents a waste of valuable resources and requires care to ensurepublic safety and welfare. This paper examines both the economic andengineering paper examines both the economic and engineering aspects ofcorrosion and its control.
Economic Impact of Corrosion
Two types of losses are attributed to corrosion: direct and indirect. Directlosses are those that can be accounted for directly, such as replacement costs,including parts and labor, and protection costs such as the cost of alloying,corrosion inhibitors, coatings, cathodic protection, and R and D.
Indirect losses caused by corrosion failure can be far larger than directlosses.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|