The Dual Spacing Formation Density Log
- J.S. Wahl (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | J. Tittman (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.) | C.W. Johnstone (Schlumberger Well Surveying Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- December 1964
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,411 - 1,416
- 1964. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 1.2.3 Rock properties, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 5.6.1 Open hole/cased hole log analysis
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To overcome the problems of mudcake and hole irregularities, the new compensated formation density logging device employs two detectors spaced at different intervals from the source. The detector at the shorter spacing is particularly sensitive to the density of material immediately adjacent to the face of the pad. The contribution of this material, which includes mudcake and minor wall irregularities, affects the response of each detector to a different degree. The signals from both detectors are combined to give automatically a density correction which is added to the uncompensated density information from the detector at the longer spacing. Both the compensated density measurement and the amount of compensation are then recorded on the log. With the unwanted borehole effects removed, the measurement is recorded directly in terms of bulk density on a linear scale.
Formation density is a very useful and diagnostic parameter for formation evaluation. When the matrix lithology is known, porosity is accurately and readily computed from density data. When the density measurements are used with other porosity-responsive measurements, such as Sonic and Neutron logs, both lithology and porosity may be defined with good accuracy. In the past, however, application of density logs was complicated by the need for corrections to obtain true formation densities from the log values. Mudcakes on permeable formations and roughness of the borehole walls have been particularly troublesome since, in each case, the device was prevented from direct contact with the formation. Attempts have been made to correct for such conditions by making a simultaneous caliper log, estimating pad standoff, and assuming knowledge of the composition of the intervening materials. While such corrections are frequently accurate, they are not always reliable because of uncertainties in the pad standoff and material composition. A further complication was the necessity for manual conversion of log counting rates to density. The newly introduced compensated formation density, logging device (FDC) automatically corrects for Mudcake and minor wall irregularities, and provides a log that is scaled directly in bulk density. The purpose of this paper is to discuss briefly the equipment, to explain the theoretical considerations involved in the compensation, and to present field examples of this new log.
COMPENSATED FORMATION DENSITY EQUIPMENT
The FDC tool incorporates two major advances over previous density logging devices: a second detector, spaced closer to the gamma ray source to provide increased sensitivity to material close to the pad; and the automatic derivation of a corrected formation density from the two counting rates. The arrangement of the source and detectors is shown in Fig. 1. The longer spacing, detector is at the same spacing from the source and gives the same response as the single detector in the previous uncompensated device. By appropriate combination of the outputs of the two detectors, the FDC tool is able to compensate in large measure for effects of mudcake and hole rugosity. This is achieved, as will be described later, without specific knowledge of either the thickness or the nature of material between the pad and formation. To obtain corrected formation density, the two count rates are automatically processed by an analog computer in the surface panel.
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