Prediction of Temperature Propagation Along a Horizontal Well During Injection Period
- Guohua Gao (Chevron Corp.) | Younes Jalali (Schlumberger)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2008
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 131 - 140
- 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.6.11 Reservoir monitoring with permanent sensors, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 2.2.2 Perforating, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.5.8 History Matching, 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 3.3.1 Production Logging, 5.6.5 Tracers, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3.3 Well & Reservoir Surveillance and Monitoring, 2.3 Completion Monitoring Systems/Intelligent Wells, 5.4.1 Waterflooding
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This paper presents a mathematical model describing the variation of temperature along the length of a horizontal well during the process of water injection. The model is obtained from a theoretical treatment accounting for both mass transfer and heat transfer between a horizontal well and a reservoir. The treatment is 1D linear in the wellbore and 1D radial in the reservoir. A numerical algorithm for reservoir temperature calculation is proposed and an analytical solution is derived on the basis of some realistic assumptions. The analytical solution can be used to generate the temperature profile in a horizontal injection well for any assumed distribution of injection profile along the length of the well, including injection profile that is uniform, skewed toward the heel or the toe, or exhibits some discontinuity (e.g., leakoff into a high permeability streak or fracture). This paper also presents comparison of temperature profiles obtained with the analytical solution given in this paper and those obtained with a numerical reservoir simulator with temperature option (ECLIPSE), which shows that the analytical solution yields reasonable temperature propagation profiles along the wellbore. The effects of injection rate and the injection profile are analyzed, and a quick in-situ injection pattern-recognition method is proposed. Finally, examples are given to show the practical application of the theoretical model.
Use of horizontal wells for injection purposes is now commonplace. This is because maturing fields produce increasing amounts of water, and horizontal wells enable disposal of large volumes of fluid. Therefore, disposal objectives can be met with a fewer number of wells. This is important in offshore operations, in which well numbers are limited because of slot constraints on the platform.
In terms of pressure maintenance, horizontal wells are also attractive. In saturated reservoirs, in which voidage replacement is fundamental to achieve a good recovery factor, horizontal wells help achieve injection volumes commensurate with production volumes in the field. Therefore, they are instrumental in reservoir management. Finally in terms of recovery, horizontal wells are effective in achieving a good volumetric sweep, particularly in thick reservoirs in which gravitational forces and stratification tend to undermine sweep.
Measurement of injection profile in horizontal wells is also a common requirement for assessing the efficiency of drilling or completion process, cleanup or stimulation process, and injection or recovery process.
Injection profile in horizontal wells can be estimated with "production logging?? technology, but this may require coiled tubing to access the full length of the well. Even with coiled tubing, there are practical limits of how far the well can be logged (e.g., currently of the order of 1 to 2 km). "Interventionless?? means of determining the injection profile in horizontal wells are therefore of interest to operators. A feasible interventionless approach in horizontal wells is efficient completion designs for deployment of the fiber optic line. There are published cases in the literature with fiber optic-distributed temperature sensors deployed in horizontal wells. These are deployed either through an extended tail pipe (i.e., "stinger?? completion) (Al-Asimi et al. 2002/2003), or through a groove in the sand screen.
The technology for measurement of distributed temperature on a periodic or continuous basis is a well-established technology and has been widely applied to reservoir and production monitoring (Brown et al. 2000, 2003, 2006; Laurence and Brown 2000; Ouyang and Belanger 2006; Nath et al. 2007; Lee 2006; Johnson et al. 2006).
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