Performance Predictions Incorporating Gravity Drainage and Gas Cap Pressure Maintenance - LL-370 Area, Bolivar Coastal Field
- D.R. McCord (Creole Petroleum Corp.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1953
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 231 - 248
- 1953. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.1.4 Gas Processing, 5.6.5 Tracers, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.6 Drilling Operations
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Data of a known statistical quality has been successfully used in a systemof conventional fluid mechanics equations essentially free of empirical"conformance" factors to predict early detailed field GOR's in areservoir where gravity drainage is important and oil and rock properties varyconsiderably. The system is useful where comparative recovery predictions forone or more cases of natural depletion and gas cap pressure maintenance areneeded and the reservoir is not too heterogeneous.
Many authors, have examined various facets of the gravity drainage-gas cappressure maintenance problem over the last several years. Two of them,Burtchaell and Elkins, have published practical studies. In the case describedin the present paper the best development and operating plan for one of theimportant reservoirs of the Bolivar Coastal Field in Western Venezuela wasurgently needed. It was requested that sound comparative economics be presentedalong with an engineering evaluation of no additional drilling, maximumdrilling, several cases of gas pressure maintenance, of water flooding andcombination cases. A rapid analysis of the effect on recovery of the range ofcrude and rock properties indicated that none of the published methods usingaverage properties would yield adequate comparative predictions. This papercovers the predictive system developed to deal with natural depletion and gascap pressure maintenance.
The large amount of data available for this field permitted statisticallyreliable correlations to be made of most rock and oil properties, and theevident smooth areal variations of these properties encouraged the constructionof a lineal mathematical model of material balance and fluid flow equations,which could be manipulated by a modified iterative procedure. The manipulationis much more adaptable to computing machines than manually operated calculatorsand subsequent studies have been prepared for the IBM Card Program Calculator.A matrix as opposed to linear model has been tentatively worked out by othermembers of our group to deal with more heterogeneous reservoirs. It is moreadaptable to computers such as IBM-701 or the Remington-Rand Univac. In 1950,when the system reported below was developed, no rapid computing machines wereavailable to the author. Their existence and promise encouraged an initialapproach by hand.
Some details of oil and rock property correlation are included because thereare a surprisingly large number of medium-sized reservoirs in the world thatshow systematic property variations which are significant for a rigorousanalysis. All large reservoirs (over half a billion barrels recovery) withwhich the author is familiar contain at minimum a significant temperaturevariation.
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