A Note on the X-Ray Absorption Method of Determining Fluid Saturation in Cores
- T.M. Geffen (Stanolind Oil and Gas Co.) | R.E. Gladfelter (Stanolind Oil and Gas Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 1952
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 322 - 323
- 1952. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.6 Formation Evaluation & Management
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Lipson has recently presented a technical note wherein theoreticalconsiderations were used to demonstrate " . . . that the adsorption vssaturation relation for a linear absorption method is not necessarily a singlevalued function of saturation." It was concluded that the absorption vssaturation relationship is subject to the same hysteretic effect as is the flowbehavior between the drainage and imbibition systems. It is the purpose of thisnote to show, by experimental results, that for the manner in which fluids aredistributed in porous materials during fluid flow, the relative X-rayabsorption vs saturation relationship is single-valued regardless of thesaturation history.
The design of the apparatus used to measure relative X-ray absorption ofcores undergoing fluid flow tests is similar to that described by Morgan,McDowell and Doty. A few modifications have been incorporated in the design toincrease sensitivity and simplicity of measurement. The sensitivity is suchthat for usual types of cores a recording pen movement of approximately 12linear in. is occasioned between the recording of the core dry and when it iscompletely full of an absorbing liquid, a solution of approximately five percent by volume of iodobenzene in a close-cut hydrocarbon fraction, or asolution of 50,000 ppm sodium iodide in water.
Two types of experiments were conducted, one in which the liquid was insidethe core, and the other with the liquid outside the core. Tests with the liquidinside the core were run to cover the saturation range encountered in both thedrainage (gas drive) and imbibition (liquid flood) flow systems. It is pointedout that the same core was used, but the tests were conducted at differenttimes with the recording mechanism balanced at a different position. Therefore,the absolute values of relative X-ray intensity at any saturation are not thesame in each test.
In the second type of test the same core was used, but this time its porespace contained only gas, and various thicknesses of oil contained in plasticcells were placed in front of the dry core.
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