A Gravel Pack Completion for Exclusion of Gas and Water
- Thomas S. West (Blanco Oil Co. and Al Buchanan Production Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- June 1951
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 183 - 190
- 1951. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 2 Well Completion, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 2.4.5 Gravel pack design & evaluation, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 3.1.1 Beam and related pumping techniques, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 3 Production and Well Operations, 2.2.2 Perforating, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.2.5 Produced Sand / Solids Management and Control, 1.10 Drilling Equipment
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A gravel pack completion is described which, in addition to sand screening,permits the exclusion of water and gas from the oil production.
A gravel pack composed of alternate layers of different particle sizes isemployed which has horizontal but not overall vertical permeability to drillingmud. A packer is run on the tubing and set in the screen member, around whichthe gravel layers are placed. The hydrostatic pressure of a mud column preventsthe entry of fluid above (or below) the level of the packer. The producinglevel may be changed by raising or lowering the tubing.
Vertical coning is controlled by replacing the mud column with oil andcontinually injecting oil into the sand section above (or below) thepacker.
Three well histories with this completion are described in detail.Statistics on the first 100 completions of this general type are given.
Gravel pack type completions have heretofore been almost exclusively for thepurpose of preventing sand production. This paper describes and presents welldata on a gravel pack procedure which is primarily a selective completionmethod. Although complete sand screening is achieved, the exclusion of gas andwater is the primary objective. The application of this procedure is thereforenot limited to unconsolidated sands. Application to hard sand or limestonereservoirs is equally feasible.
Gravel Pack Procedure
Figs. 1 and 2 illustrate the gravel pack procedure employed. The gravel isplaced by means of the frangible disc type dump bailer shown by Fig. 1. Thisbailer has its lower end closed by a plate glass or steel rimmed cement disc.This disc breaks when the bailer passes over the liner allowing the gravel tobe deposited around the liner. The liner employed is usually 2 3/8 in. to 2 7/8in. OD and 1.995 in. or 2.07 in. ID (ID of 2-in. tubing or 2-in. line pipe).Two types of slotted sections have been employed. One type employs horizontalhacksaw cut or milled slots of about 1/32 in. width opposite the producingsection. The other type employs the same type of horizontal slot, but slots areplaced in groups of six at intervals of about 8 in.
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