Evaluation Of Capillary Character In Petroleum Reservoir Rock
- Walter Rose (Gulf Research & Development Co.) | W.A. Bruce (The Carter Oil Co. Research Laboratory)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- May 1949
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 127 - 142
- 1949. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.3.4 Scale, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology
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Improved apparatus, methods, and experimental techniques for determining thecapillary pressure-saturation relation are described in detail. In thisconnection a new multi-core procedure has been developed which simplifies theexperimental work in the study of relatively homogeneous reservoirs. The basictheory concerning the Leverett capillary pressure function has been extendedand has been given some practical application. Some discussion is presented toindicate the relationship of relative permeability to capillary pressure, andto provide a new description of capillary pressure phenomena by introducing theconcept of the psi function.
For the purposes of this paper the capillary character of a porous mediumwill be defined to express the basic properties of the system, which produceobserved results of fluid behavior. These basic properties may be classified inthe following manner, according to their relationship to:
(a) The geometrical configuration of the interstitial spaces.
This involves consideration of the packing of the particles, producing pointsof grain contact, and variations in pore size distribution. The packing itselfis often modified by the secondary processes of mineralization which introducesfactors of cementation, and of solution action which causes alteration of porestructure.
(b) The physical and chemical nature of the interstitial surfaces.
This involves consideration of the presence of interstitial clay coatings, theexistence of non-uniform wetting surfaces; or, more generally, a considerationof the tendency towards variable interaction between the interstitial surfacesand the fluid phases saturating the interstitial spaces.
(c) The physical and chemical properties of the fluid phases in contact withthe interstitial surfaces.
This involves consideration of the factors of surface, interfacial and adhesiontensions; contact angles; viscosity; density difference between immisciblefluid phases; and other fluid properties.
Fine grained, granular, porous materials such as found in petroleum reservoirrock possess characteristics which are expressible by (1) permeability, (2)porosity, and (3) the capillary pressure-saturation behavior of immisciblefluids in this medium. These three measurable macroscopic properties dependupon the microscopic properties enumerated above in a manner which defines thecapillary character.
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