Use of Permeability Distribution in Water Flood Calculations
- Wm. E. Stiles (Core Laboratories)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- January 1949
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 9 - 13
- 1949. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.6.2 Core Analysis, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.5.2 Core Analysis, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation
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A method is presented for predicting the performance of water floodingoperations in depleted, or nearly depleted, petroleum reservoirs. The methodmakes use of permeability variations and the vertical distribution ofproductive capacity. From these two parameters can be calculated the producedwater cut versus the oil recovery. Derivations of the mathematical analogy isshown and sample calculations and curves of prediction are presented.Comparison is made of the predicted and actual performance of a typical 5-spotin an Illinois water flood.
The use of water as a flooding medium in both depleted and "flush"oil reservoirs is gaining greater recognition and acceptance. Many of theshallower fields, depleted by primary production, have been and are beingsubjected to water injection in order to obtain some part of the large volumeof oil remaining after primary production. Some of the earlier water floodinstallation proved highly discouraging and the value of water flooding wasoften questioned. Many of these earlier floods were haphazardly selected anddeveloped as little was known of the physical characteristics and contents ofthe producing formations. The prior evaluation of the flood performance wasimpossible.
During the past decade the development of the required reservoir engineeringtools -core analysis, reservoir fluid analysis, electric logs, fluid flowformulae, etc.- has allowed the engineer to construct and apply the methodswhich are presently being used to evaluate the economic and mechanicalsusceptibility of a reservoir to flooding.
This discussion will present a method for taking into account the effectof
permeability variations in predicting the performance of water floods indepleted reservoirs.
Permeability and Capacity Distribution
It is generally agreed by most investigators that in a single phase systemfluid will flow in a porous and permeable medium in proportion to thepermeability of the medium.
Producing formations are usually highly irregular in permeability, bothvertically and horizontally. However, zones of higher or lower permeability areoften found to exhibit lateral continuity. Thus, while structurally comparablestringers in adjacent wells may differ several fold in permeability values,they usually bear resemblance as being part of a general continuous higher orlower permeability section.
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