Apparatus for Determination of Volumetric Behavior of Fluids
- B.H. Sage (California Institute of Technology) | W.N. Lacey (California Institute of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Transactions of the AIME
- Publication Date
- December 1948
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 102 - 120
- 1948. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.3 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics
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- 169 since 2007
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Apparatus and a method for determining the volumetric behavior of hydrocarbonsat pressures up to 10,000 psi and at temperatures between 0? and 460?F aredescribed. The equipment is suitable for measuring the total volume of thesystem and the volume of a liquid phase as functions of state within theseranges of temperature and pressure.
During the past two decades there has been a marked increase in the ranges oftemperature and pressure encountered in underground hydrocarbon reservoirs ofcommercial interest. In addition, greater interest in the intensivecharacteristics of the fluids found in these reservoirs has developed.
Several types of apparatus have been developed in the authors' laboratory forvolumetric measurements of hydrocarbon systems. The earliest equipmentdescribed was characterized by constant volume, and the weight of materialpresent was varied systematically in order to attain the different pressuresdesired in the study. Later another apparatus was built in which the effectivevolume of the cylindrical cell, which confined a hydrocarbon sample of constantweight was varied by injection or withdrawal of mercury. The effective totalvolume of the equilibrium cell was measured by ascertaining the position of themercury surface but no measurement could be made which gave knowledge of thevolumes of individual phases existing within the hydrocarbon system.
A third apparatus was designed for use at higher pressures and temperaturesthan the earlier equipment would tolerate. This apparatus was of the variablevolume type but was built in the general form of a U-tube, the mercury levelbeing measured at the surface which was not exposed to the hydrocarbon system.This arrangement avoided the need of subjecting measuring equipment to theextremes of temperature at which studies were made, but it gave no provisionfor measurement of the volumes of individual phases. Although this lastapparatus was satisfactory as to accuracy and convenience for many purposes,need was felt for measurements of the volume of the liquid phase of thehydrocarbon system.
For this reason a fourth equilibrium apparatus was designed and constructed andit is the purpose of the present paper to describe it. The equilibrium cell hasa working range of temperature from 0? to 460?F at pressures up to 10,000 psi.Provision for measurement of both total volume and liquid-phase volume makes itparticularly suitable for the equilibrium study of heterogeneous systemsconsisting either of simple mixtures or of complex field samples ofhydrocarbons.
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