Surface Energy Relationships in Petroleum Reservoirs
- H.K. Livingston (U. of Chicago)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Transactions of the AIME
- Publication Date
- December 1943
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 147 - 152
- 1943. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 4.3.4 Scale, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen
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A technique has been developed which makes it possible to determine thespreading pressure of liquids and solids, for simple systems. Data for surfacetensions, interfacial tensions, spreading pressures, and contact angles forwater, heptane, and silica are tabulated. These results can be applied to theevaluation of capillary rise and displacement pressure in a petroleumreservoir. Appropriate equations are presented and the application of theseequations is discussed. The presence of surface-active components affects bothcapillary rise and displacement pressure and also seems to influence the rateof fluid flow.
The purpose of this paper is to supplement and bring up to date the lastarticle on the subject of the surface chemistry of petroleum reservoirs, thatof Garrison in the 1935 Oil and Gas Journal. A discussion of the "adhesiontension" concept used by Garrison has been presented in anotherpublication, together with the reasons for the recommendation that the term"adhesion tension" be abandoned. In view of the fact that some of thedata used by Garrison have been superseded by more recent work, it seemedadvisable to call attention to this fact and present the more important datacurrently believed to be correct.
In the earlier paper, Garrison set up the equations that relate solid-oiland solid-water interfacial tensions to each other, and applied data fromBartell and Miller to these equations. However the adhesion tensionmeasurements made by Bartell and Miller involved a confusion of symbols, sothat they did not actually measure the spreading pressure. The spreadingpressure is a convenient method of indicating the amount by which the surfaceenergy of a solid surface is lowered on immersion in a liquid or vapor.
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