Influence of Connate Water on Permeability of Sands to Oil
- Eldon N. Dunlap (Standard Oil Company of California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Transactions of the AIME
- Publication Date
- December 1938
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 215 - 225
- 1938. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 6.4.3 Data and Communication Security, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 2.2.2 Perforating, 1.2.3 Rock properties
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Recently the producing branch of the petroleum industry has shown aconsiderable and growing interest in the quantitative determination of thewater, oil, and gas content of cores as it relates to estimation of reserves,to providing a basis for judging as to the feasibility of applying varioussecondary-recovery and pressure-maintenance processes, and in general to theoperation of producing properties. For years it has been known that oil, gasand water coexisted in the pores of many semidepleted oil measures. It is nowgenerally believed that oil-bearing beds contain connate water in amountsvarying up to 50 per cent of the pore space. However, only lately has reliabledirect evidence of the extensive occurrence of connate water in oil sands beenpublished. Very little work has been done to ascertain the effect of this wateron the productivity and ultimate recovery of oil from wells. It was the intentof this research to study the influence of interstitial water on the flow ofoil through unconsolidated sands, with the hope that the results could beapplied qualitatively to the flow of oil in underground reservoirs partlysaturated with water.
Obviously, ultimate recovery estimates based on the void volume of thereservoir will be in error unless a correction is made for the volume of waterthat occupies a portion of the effective pore volume of the reservoir.Evaluation engineers in the past have applied arbitrary saturation and recoveryfactors that may inadverently have compensated for the failure to considerspecifically the water content. Nevertheless, the evidence available indicatesthat these factors need revising if each is to be independently correct andtruly representative.
Although the fact that the connate water renders part of the pore volume of thereservoir incapable of containing oil is of primary importance to the operator,it is also to his interest to know to what extent the presence of varyingamounts of interstitial water influences the permeability of the sand tooil.
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