Recent Correlations of Hydrocarbon Properties With Composition
- H.T. Kennedy (Texas A And M U.) | C.H. Bowman (Gulf Research And Development Co.) | A.N. Crownover (Humble Oil And Refining Co.) | E.P. Miesch (Continental Oil Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1965
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,105 - 1,110
- 1965. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 434 since 2007
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Kennedy, H.T., Member AIME, Texas A and M U., College Station, Tex., Bowman, C.H.,* Member AIME, Gulf Research and Development Co., Pittsburgh, Pa., Crownover, A.N., Junior Member AIME, Humble Oil and Refining Co., Pleasanton, Texas, Miesch, E.P., Junior Member AIME, Continental Oil Co., Ponca City, Okla.
The paper presents correlations of (1) molar volume of gaseous hydrocarbon mixtures with pressure, temperature, composition and properties of the C7-plus fraction; (2) shrinkage of oils during flash and differential liberation of gas, including the calculation of formation volume factor under various conditions; and (3) bubble-point pressure with temperature, composition and characteristics of C7-plus. The data on which the correlations are based comprise 1,615 measurements on 900 hydrocarbon systems, including numerous systems containing nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. In each correlation, the number of data points covered and the accuracy is substantially greater than in previously available work. Thus, the equation yielding molar volumes of gases has an average deviation of 2.04 per cent, applied to mixtures having temperatures up to 313F and pressures up to 9,800 psia, compared to 2.37 per cent for the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation applied to the same data, and 4.53 per cent for the method based on the law of corresponding states. The equations presented are all explicit in the dependent variable, and require no iteration on the digital computer.
The ease and accuracy of determining the composition of hydrocarbon mixtures, compared to the difficulty of measuring their properties under reservoir conditions, makes it desirable to utilize composition as the key to physical behavior to the greatest possible extent. As a result, there are available correlations between composition, or easily measured characteristics dependent on composition, and practically every important engineering property of reservoir fluids. The task confronting us is one of finding more exact relationships between important variables rather than extending correlations to new properties. This paper describes new correlations of molar volumes of gases, formation volume factors, and bubble-point pressures with composition, temperature and where possible, pressure. Each correlation is obtained by employing a sufficiently large amount of data so the calculated properties are probably as least as accurate as the measurement on which they are based.
MOLAR VOLUME OF GASES
Although many equations of state have been proposed for pure gases, only a few methods are applicable to hydrocarbons at conditions comparable to those in petroleum reservoirs. Still fewer are useful in describing the behavior of mixtures, with which the petroleum engineer is largely concerned. The correlation presented here involves procedures similar to those of Alani and Kennedy. The van der Waals equation
is modified to make a and b functions of temperature instead of being constants for each material. This is a cubic equation, which may have either one or three real roots. The lowest root corresponds to liquid volume, while the highest applies to gas. When the procedure was applied to 703 pressure-temperature points of 164 gases of known composition and volume, the average deviation was 12.08 per cent, and the standard deviation 8.15. The above calculations were made using the constants derived for liquids by Alani and Kennedy and the mixture equation developed by them. A closer approximation to measured molar volumes is obtained by employing different sets of constants for different areas on the pressure-temperature chart, and by changing the relationship between am and bm for mixtures and the ai and bi for individual hydrocarbons. The various sets are shown in Table 1, and the areas for which they are recommended are plotted in Figs. 1 through 7. In these figures, the area designated by zero is in the critical region for pure materials, and the values obtained for them may be unreliable.
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