Exploring Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Completion in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs: West African Examples
- C. Shah Kabir (Chevron Corp.) | Ming-Ming Chang (Chevron Corp.) | Okhtay Taghizadeh D.C. (U. of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2006
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 77 - 85
- 2006. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.5 Processing Equipment, 2 Well Completion, 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 5.6.4 Drillstem/Well Testing, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 2.2.2 Perforating, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling, 5.7.5 Economic Evaluations, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 3.3.4 Downhole Monitoring and Control, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.8.8 Gas-condensate reservoirs, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.8 History Matching, 4.6 Natural Gas, 5.1 Reservoir Characterisation, 4.6.2 Liquified Natural Gas (LNG), 5.1.2 Faults and Fracture Characterisation, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 1.2.3 Rock properties, 2.3 Completion Monitoring Systems/Intelligent Wells
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This paper explores multiple completion options in gas/condensate reservoirs with compositional simulations. Besides intelligent-well completion (IWC), options included commingling two reservoirs of contrasting conductivity (permeability-thickness product) and selectively perforating zones or reservoirs to offset the permeability contrast. At the outset, a value-of-information exercise suggested probing downhole sensing and completion issues in a stacked-reservoir situation. The ultimate objective of this study was to ascertain economic completion strategy so that depletion of reservoirs occurs evenly at the project's termination.
Single-well compositional simulations formed the backbone for our evaluation of three completion options. Each reservoir was characterized by history matching drillstem tests (DSTs). Experimental design (ED) reduced the large number of simulation runs to a manageable few for probabilistic forecasting. Comparison of three options suggested that all of them nearly produced the desired results of maximum liquid recovery despite a 10-fold difference in permeability between the two horizons.
Results further showed that condensate banking was a nonissue in this high-kh system of reservoirs as far as the gas deliverability is concerned. In other words, although 40 to 60% degradation in the gas productivity index (PI) occurred, gas deliverability remained intact. In contrast, both the liquid PI and rate declined with time owing to phase-behavior and relative permeability issues. Finally, we learned that the net income generated by IWC is no better than the specific-perforation completion (SPC).
IWC is primarily about proactive, on-time intervention through monitoring and control of flow in and out of the well. Economic imperatives, particularly in deepwater settings, have generated intense interest in IWC technology. Of course, the ability to commingle marginal reservoirs in any situation is another attractive application of IWC.
To underscore IWC's importance, various papers have appeared in the literature describing instrumentation and control (Robinson and Mathieson 1998; Rundgren et al. 2001; Tourillon et al. 2001), reservoir modeling (Ostvik et al. 2001; Borch 2001; Yu et al. 2000; Akram et al. 2001; Nielsen et al. 2001; Jalali 1998), and field implementations (Lau et al. 2001; Erlandsen 2000; Glandt 2003). Most papers describe the well-centric benefits of IWC in horizontal and/or multilateral wells in complex lithologies, with the exception of Jalali (1998) and Glandt (2003). In fact, Glandt provides a comprehensive review of this technology, particularly from the viewpoint of reservoir engineering. The use of probabilistic analysis (van der Poela and Jansen 2004) to assess the value of IWC in a complex reservoir scenario was also explored for oil wells. This body of work demonstrates the promise of IWC because the technology is in growth mode, with 5 or so years of collective industry experience.
The main motivation of this study stemmed from understanding the local regulatory body's completion philosophy. Derived primarily from the oilwell analog, the current regulation prevents layer commingling when production occurs from different geologic horizons. This regulation does not preclude commingling layers of contrasting properties, separated by shales, so long as they are within the same geologic unit. Therefore, our incentive was to learn how one should approach the completion issue within a single geologic unit and in multiple geologic units.
In this study, we probe the benefits of IWC or its analog in a depletion-drive system, where primary production dominates. Three completion scenarios were considered: (1) commingling with downhole control, (2) commingling without downhole control by selective interval perforating, and (3) conventional commingled completion. Our objective was to eliminate reservoir crossflow without differential depletion among the reservoirs in the first two completion options.
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