Identification of Mixtures of Waters from Chemical Water Analyses
- J.C. McKinnell (Standard Oil Co. of California)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- September 1958
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 79 - 82
- 1958. Original copyright American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. Copyright has expired.
- 5.2 Fluid Characterization
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Identification of complex mixtures of waters presents many problems that can be solved by graphical methods described in this paper. Examples are presented to show the application of these methods to the correlation of oilfield waters and the determination of the percentage of each water in mixtures of two and three waters.
Correlation of waters and identification of mixtures of two and three waters is important in secondary recovery evaluation studies and studies involving underground movement of waters. The importance of such studies suggests the need for a method to correlate a great number of water analyses to accurately identify and improve the understanding of mixtures of waters.
Geochemical analyses of waters furnish a quantitative measure of each of the ions present in a water. Table 1 shows a portion of the data on many oilfield water analysis report forms in use today. Under "parts per million" are listed the quantitative amounts of each ion in milligrams per liter. Following the work of Stabler and Palmer, some laboratories have reported additional data to indicate the reaction capacity, or reacting value of each ion. Table 1 lists data under two subheads for the "reacting value". Under the first subhead, the reacting value is reported in gram equivalents per million, hereinafter called equivalents per million. This value is determined by multiplying milligrams per liter of the ion by a factor equal to the reciprocal of the equivalent weight of the ion. Under the second subhead (per cent) is listed the percentage of each ion based on the total equivalents per million.
Sodium is not usually an analyzed value in routine analyses, but is determined by the difference between total negative equivalent per million values and the sum of all of positive ion values for which analyses were made. This difference is reported as sodium, hereafter labelled "sodium". On this basis, the, subtotals of the equivalent per million and per cent reacting values of the positive and negative ions are equal.
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