Correlations and Analysis of Cuttings Transport With Aerated Fluids in Deviated Wells
- Ricardo J. Avila (ConocoPhillips) | Edgar J. Pereira (U. del Zulia) | Stefan Z. Miska (U. of Tulsa) | Nicholas E. Takach (U. of Tulsa)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- June 2008
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 132 - 141
- 2008. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods, 2.7.1 Completion Fluids, 1.7.7 Cuttings Transport, 1.10 Drilling Equipment, 3 Production and Well Operations, 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 1.2 Wellbore Design, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 2 Well Completion, 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.6 Drilling Operations, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.10.1 Drill string components and drilling tools (tubulars, jars, subs, stabilisers, reamers, etc), 4.3.4 Scale
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A study of cuttings transport at intermediate inclinations using aerated fluid, to determine the amount of solids that exist in the wellbore and minimum flow requirements for "clean-hole" condition, is presented. The experimental program included more than 300 tests, performed with a large-scale facility [100-ft-long flow loop with 8-in. outer diameter (OD) casing and 4.5-in.-OD drillpipe]. The angles of test section inclination were 30°, 45°, and 60° from vertical. Four pipe-rotational speeds (0, 40, 80, and 110 rpm) were used for different liquid-and gas-flow-rate combinations. New correlations were found to estimate the required critical-gas-flow rates for hole cleaning at specified liquid-flow rate and drillpipe-rotation combinations, and to predict volumetric cuttings concentration as a function of air and water flow rate, drillpipe-rotational speed, and inclination angle.
In recent years, two goals of oil and gas production companies have been to develop new methods to improve hydrocarbon recovery in mature areas and to exploit new low-pressure/ low-permeability reservoirs. The use of underbalanced and near-balanced drilling techniques has found applications for these particular cases.
Cuttings transport is one of the major factors affecting cost, time, and quality of directional wells. The significant advantages related to drilling with aerated fluids are reduced by inefficient cuttings transport to the surface. Specifically, these advantages depend on understanding the interaction between fluids and the drill cuttings.
Cuttings transport with multiphase fluids is dominated by many variables, and the interaction of all of these variables adds complexity to this subject. Because of this, an experimental approach has been selected to accomplish this investigation.
The understanding of cuttings transport with multiphase fluids is very limited because the majority of research in cuttings transport has been conducted with conventional drilling fluids. The study of three-phase flow is relatively new, and there are not enough studies that consider the transport of solids with Newtonian gas/liquid mixtures, pipe rotation, and the slip between phases.
This paper reports on an experimental study of hole cleaning with aerated fluids at intermediate hole angles considering drillpipe rotation. The main results of this work are experimental data, empirical correlations, and observations. It is intended to serve as a guide to the current technology, explaining how and why the effect of pipe rotation is related to the cuttings concentration in the wellbore.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
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